Feb 18, 2020
Feb 18, 2020 at 11:10 AM
Informer : Askwala
የቻይና ባለሥልጣናት ስጋት ባስከተለው የኮሮና ቫይረስ የተያዙ ሰዎች ቁጥር በመጠኑ እያሻቀበ መሄዱን አመለከቱ። የተጠቂዎች ቁጥር ለሦስት ቀናት ቀንሶ መታየቱ ቢነገርም ዛሬ አዲስ የተያዙት ሰዎች ብዛት 2,048 መድረሱ ተገልጿል። በሽታው ከተቀሰቀሰ ጀምሮ በቫይረሱ የተያዙት በጥቅሉ ከ70 ሺህ መብለጣቸውን ባለሥልጣናቱን የተጠቀሰው ዘገባ አስታውቋል። በኮሮና ቫይረስ የሞቱት ደግሞ ከ1 ሺህ 700 መብለጡም ተነግሯል። በቫይረሱ ተይዘው ከነበሩት ከ10 ሺህ የሚበልጡ ተፈውሰው ከየነበሩበት ሃኪም ቤት መውጣታቸውን ዘገባዎች ጠቅሰዋል።
Feb 17, 2020 at 12:00 PM
Informer : Askwala
በቻይና በዛሬዉ እለት ብቻ 2009 የኮረና ቫይረስ ተጠቂዎች መመዝገባቸዉን መዲና ቤጂንግ የሚገኙ ባለስልጣናት ገለፁ። ባለስልጣናቱ እንዳሉት ይህ ቁጥር ትናንት ከተመዘገበዉ ከ 2 ሺህ 641 ጋር ሲነፃጸር አነስተኛ ነዉ። የቁጥሩ መቀነስ የቫይረሱን ስርጭት ለመቆጣጠር የተደረገዉ ከፍተኛ ጥረት ዉጤት መሆኑን አመልክተዋል። በቻይና በዛሬዉ ዕለት የተመዘገቡ የኮረና ቫይረስ ተጠቂዎችን ጨምሮ እስካሁን 68 ሺ 500 ሰዎች በቫይረሱ የተለከፉ ዜጎች እንዳሉ ለማወቅ ተችሏል። በኮረና ቫይረስ በዛሬዉ እለት ብቻ በቻይና የሞቱት ሰዎች 142 ሲሆን ይህ ቁጥር ከትናንትናዉ እለት ጋር ሲነጻፀር በአንድ ሰዉ ሞት መቀነሱን የቻይና ባለስልጣናት አመልክተዋል። እስካሁን በቻይና በኮሮና ቫይረስ ወደ 1665 መሞታቸዉን ታዉቋል። ከሟቾች በአብዛኛዉን ቁጥር የሚይዙት በቻይና ማዕከላዊ ሁባይ አዉራጃ የሚኖሩ ሰዎች ናቸዉም ተብሏል። ከቻይና ዉጭ ታይዋን ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በኮሮና ቫይረስ ሞት የተመዘገበ ሲሆን በትናንትናዉ ዕለት ደግሞ ፈረንሳይ ዉስጥ አንድ የቻይና ቱሪስት ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በቫይረሱ ህይወቱ አልፏል። የኮሮና ቫይረስ ከቻይና ውጭ ደግሞ በ30 ሀገራት 500 ሰዎችን ያጠቃ ሲሆን አራት ሰዎች ደግሞ ህይወታቸው ማለፉን የሮይተርስ ዘገባ ያሳያል።
Feb 14, 2020 at 10:23 AM
Informer : Askwala
ቻይና ውስጥ በተቀሰቀሰው የኮሮና ቫይረስ የተነሳ ታመው የሞቱ ሰዎች ቁጥር በፍጥነት እየጨመረ ነው ተባለ። እስከ ትናንትና ድረስ ብቻ በቫይረሱ ታመው የሞቱ ሰዎች ቁጥር ከ254 ወደ 1,367 በፍጥነት ከፍ ማለቱን የቻይና ብሔራዊ የጤና ኮሚሺን ዛሬ ዐስታውቋል። ቻይና ውስጥ በትናንትናው ዕለት ብቻ ተጨማሪ 15,152 ሰዎች የኮሮና ቫይረስ እንደተገኘባቸው ተዘግቧል። የዓለም የጤና ድርጅት (WHO) ቻይና የቫይረሱ ሥርጭት በአኹኑ ወቅት ምን ደረጃ ላይ እንደሚገኝ «ተጨማሪ ማብራሪያ» እንድትሰጥ ጠይቋል። የቻይና መንግሥት የኮሮና ቫይረስ ተጽዕኖን የመቀነስ አቅም እንዳለው በአጽንዖት ገልጧል። በአኹኑ ወቅት አጠቃላይ በኮሮና ቫይረስ የተያዙ ሰዎች ቁጥር ወደ ስድሳ ሺህ ግድም (59,805)ከፍ ማለቱ ተዘግቧል።
Feb 13, 2020 at 09:55 AM
Informer : Askwala
ለኮረና ቫይረስ መድሐኒትና ክትባት ለመፈለግ የሚደረገውን ጥረት ያፋጥናል የተባለ የሳይቲስቶች፣ የተመራማሪዎችና የባለሙያዎች ጉባኤ ዛሬ ዤኔቭ ሲዊትዘርላድ ውስጥ ተጀመረ። ለሁለት ቀን የተሰበሰቡት የዓለም የጤና ሳይቲስቶችና ባለሙዎች ከገዳዩ ቫይረስ የሚያድን መድሐኒት ወይም የሚከላከል ክትባት ለማግኘት ስለተደረገ እና መደረግ ስላለበት ምርምር ይወያያሉ። ስብሰባውን ያዘጋጀው የዓለም ጤና ድርጅት (WHO) የበላይ ኃላፊ ቴዎድሮስ አድሐኖም ለተሰብሳቢዎች እንደነገሩት ቫይረሱ እስካሁን ከቻይና ውጪ ብዙ ጉዳት ባያደርስም ሥርጭቱ ለመላዉ ዓለም አሳሳቢ ነው። የኮረና ቫይረስ የገደላቸው ሰዎች ቁጥር ዛሬ ከአንድ ሺሕ በልጧል። በተሕዋሲው የተለከፈው ደግሞ ከ37 ሺሕ 6 መቶ በልጧል።
Feb 11, 2020 at 06:56 AM
Informer : Askwala
ቻይና ዉስጥ ከ 900 በላይ ሰዎች በኮሮና ቫይረስ መሞታቸው ተነገረ። በአንድ ቀን ብቻ 97 ሰዎች በኮሮና ቫይረስ መሞታቸውን ፔኪንግ የሚገኘዉ የቻይና መንግሥት አስታዉቋል። በሀገሪቱ ከ 40 ሺህ በላይ ቻይናውያን በኮሮና ተኅዋሲ መያዛቸውን መንግሥት አስታውቋል። በቻይና የተዛመተውን የኮሮና ቫይረስን ለመዋጋት የቻይና ማዕከላዊ ባንክ ወደ 40 ቢሊዮን ዶላር ድጋፍ ሰጥቷል። ቫይረሱን ከሀገሪቱ ለማጥፋት እና መድኃኒት ለማግኘት የተለያዩ የቻይና ኩባንያዎች ለሚያደርጉት ርብርብ ከማዕከላዊ ባንክ የገንዘብ ብድር ማግኘታቸውም ተያይዞ ተዘግቧል።
Feb 10, 2020 at 11:22 AM
Informer : Askwala
ቻይና ውስጥ በኮሮና ቫይረስ የሞቱት ሰዎች ቁጥር ወደ 811 ከፍ ማለቱን ባለስልጣናት ገለፁ ፡፡ ይህም እስካሁን ከነበሩ ተመሳሳይ ወረርሽኞች ብዙ ሰዎች የሞቱበት ወረርሽኝ ያደርገዋል ተብሏል። ከዚህ በፊት እ.ኤ.አ. በ 2002 እና በ 2003 ሳርስ የተባለው ወረርሽኝ የተከሰተ ሲሆን በዓለም ዙሪያ የሞቱት ሰዎች ቁጥር 774 ነበር። ቻይና ውስጥ በኮሮና የተጠቁ ሰዎች ቁጥር አሁን ከ 37,200 በላይ የደረሰ ሲሆን የበሽታው ማዕከል የተባለችው የቻይና አውራጃ ሁባይ ናት። በሽታው አምጪ ቫይረስ ከውሃን ከተማ ወደ እዚችው አውራጃ መዛባቱም ተገልጿል።
Feb 06, 2020 at 09:59 AM
Informer : Askwala
የኮሮና ቫይረስ ከተገመተዉ በላይ በፍጥነት እየተዛመተ መሆኑን የጤና ባለሙያዎችና የሐገራት ባለስልጣናት አስታወቁ።የጤና ባለሙያዎች እንደሚሉት የተለያዩ ሰዎች በቫይረሱ መጠቃታቸዉን ሳያዉቁ ከሌሎች ሰዎች ጋር በመገናኘታቸዉ በገዳዩ ቫይረስ የተለከፈዉ ሰዉ ቁጥር እየናረ ነዉ።ይሁንና በቫይረሱ እስካሁን ሰዎች የገደለዉ ዋናዋ ቻይና፣ የቻይና ልዩ ግዛት በሆነችዉ ሆንግ ኮንግ እና ፊሊፒንስ ዉስጥ ነዉ።እስከ ዛሬ ድረስ የሞቱት ሰዎች ቁጥር 492 ደርሷል። በቫይረሱ የተለከፈዉ ሰዉ ቁጥር ደግሞ 24,500 ነዉ።አብዛኛዉ ሰዉ የቻይና ዜጋ ወይም ቻይና ዉስጥ የሚኖር ሲሆን ጃፓን ዉስጥ 35፣ ሲንጋፑር 28 እና ታይላድ ዉስጥ 25 ሰዉ በቫይረሱ በመለከፍ ከቻይና ቀጥሎ ከአንድ እስከ ሶስት ያለዉን ስፍራ ይይዛሉ።ባጠቃላይ በ26 ሐገራት በተሕዋሲዉ የተጠቁ ሰዎች መኖራቸዉ ተረጋግጧል።
Feb 05, 2020 at 11:02 AM
Informer : Askwala
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve altering or injuring the female genitalia for non-medical reasons and is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights, the health and the integrity of girls and women.
Girls who undergo female genital mutilation face short-term complications such as severe pain, shock, excessive bleeding, infections, and difficulty in passing urine, as well as long-term consequences for their sexual and reproductive health and mental health.
Female circumcision involves removing part or all of a woman’s labia and clitoris and is usually performed on girls entering adolescence. This practice is painful, and often harmful, to the women of societies that perform it, but many of those societies claim that the practice is important and deeply rooted in their culture.
To promote the elimination of female genital mutilation, coordinated and systematic efforts are needed, and they must engage whole communities and focus on human rights, gender equality, sexual education and attention to the needs of women and girls who suffer from its consequences.
Feb 05, 2020 at 10:40 AM
Informer : Askwala
ቻይና በኮሮና ተሐዋሲ የተነሳ የሞቱት ሰዎች ቁጥር 425 መድረሱን ዐስታወቀች። ከቻይና ውጪ ደግሞ ሆንግ ኮንግ እና ፊሊፒንስ ውስጥ ኹለት ሰዎች ሞተዋል። የኮሮና ተሐዋሲ የተገኘባቸው ሰዎች ቁጥር ደግሞ ከሃያ ሺህ በልጧል። የቻይና ብሔራዊ ጤና ኮሚሽን ዛሬ እንዳስታወቀው በሀገር አቀፍ ደረጃ ብቻ 20,438 ሰዎች የኮሮና ተሐዋሲ አለባቸው። ከቻይና ውጪ ቢያንስ 180 ሰዎች በተለያዩ ሃገራት ውስጥ የኮሮና ተሐዋሲ እንዳለባቸው ተዘግቧል፤ 12ቱ ጀርመን ውስጥ ይገኛሉ።
Feb 04, 2020 at 10:04 AM
Informer : Askwala
የኮሮና ተህዋሲ ሥርጭትን ለመከላከል በዓለም አቀፍ ጉዞ እና ንግድ ውስጥ አላስፈላጊ ጣልቃ ገብነት የሚያደርጉ እርምጃዎችን መውሰድ እንደማያስፈልግ የዓለም ጤና ድርጅት ሃላፊ አሳሰቡ።ሃላፊው ዶክተር ቴዎድሮስ አድሃኖም ዛሬ በሰጡት መግለጫ ሃገራት ከኮሮና ተህዋሲ ጋር በተያያዘ የሚወስዷቸው እርምጃዎች በመረጃ ላይ የተመሰረተ እና የማይዋዥቅ እንዲሆን ጥሪ አቅርበዋል።የዓለም የጤና ድርጅት ኮሮናን ዓለም አቀፍ የጤና ስጋት ሲል ባለፈው ሐሙስ ነበር ያወጀው። በኮሮና ተህዋሲ ሰበብ የተደረጉ የበረራ ገደቦች እና ከቻይና በሚመጡ መንገደኞች ላይ የተጣለው እገዳ በቻይና ላይ ዓለም አቀፍ መገለል አስከትሏል።ቻይና ውስጥ በተህዋሲው የሞቱት ሰዎች ቁጥር 361 ደርሷል።በተህዋሲው መያዛቸው የተረጋገጠው ደግሞ 17238 ናቸው።በ23 ሃገራት ደግሞ 151 ሰዎች በበሽታው መያዛቸው ተነግሯል። በተህዋሲው የተያዘች አንዲት ሴት ፊሊፒንስ ውስጥ ሞታለች።
Jan 31, 2020 at 10:13 AM
Informer : Askwala
በኮሮና ቫይረስ ተይዘው ሊሆን ይችላል በሚል ጥርጣሬ በተገለል የሕክምና ማዕከል የቆዩ አራት ኢትዮጵያውያን ከህመሙ ነፃ መሆናቸውን የጤና ጥበቃ ምኒስትር ድዔታ ዶ/ር ሊያ ከበደ አስታወቁ። ምኒስትሯ ደቡብ አፍሪካ በተደረገ ምርመራ አራቱ ተማሪዎች ነፃ መሆናቸው ተረጋግጧል ብለዋል።በቫይረሱ ተይዘዋል ተብለው ከተጠረጠሩት አራቱ ተማሪዎች ሦስቱ ቫይረሱ ከተከሰተበት ኹዋን ከተባለዉ የቻይና ግዛት የመጡ ነበሩ።የኢትዮጵያ ጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር ሰሞኑን በሰጠው መግለጫ ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ በኮሮና ቫይረስ የተያዘ ሰው እንደሌለ አስታውቋል።በሌላ በኩል የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት ቻይና የሚገኙ ኢትዮጵያውያን ተማሪዎች ከኮሮና ቫይረስ ጋር የተያያዘ የጤና ችግር አልደረሰባቸውም ሲል አስታወቀ።በቻይና ቻንቺግ ግዛት በሚገኘው የኢትዮጵያ ቆንስላ ጽህፈት ቤት ተጠባባቂ ቆንስል ጀነራል አቶ አንተነህ ታሪኩ ተማሪዎቹ በሙሉ በጥሩ ሁኔታ ላይ ይገኛሉ ሲሉ ተናግረዋል።አቶ አንተነህ እንዳሉት አስፈላጊ ከሆነ መንግሥት ዜጎችን ለማውጣት ዝግጁ ነው።የኢትዮጵያ አየር መንገድ ግን ወደ ቻይና የሚያደርገውን መደበኛ በረራ ሙሉ በሙሉ አቋርጧል።ሮይተር ዜና አገልግሎት የአየር መንገዱን የመንገደኞች የስልክ ጥሪ ማዕከልን ጠቅሶ እንደዘገበው ወደ ቻይና የሚደረጉ በረራዎች በሙሉ ከዛሬ ጀምሮ ተቋርጠዋል የአየር መንገዱ ቃል አቀባይ ግን በጉዳዩ ላይ አስተያየት ለመስጠት ፈቃደኛ አልሆኑም።
Jan 29, 2020 at 09:53 AM
Informer : Askwala
በኮሮና ተሐዋሲ ሳይያዙ አልቀረም በሚል የተጠረጠሩ 4 ሰዎች አዲስ አበባ ውስጥ ከኅብረተሰብ በማይቀላቀሉበት ገለልተኛ ቦታ የሕክምና ክትትል እየተደረገላቸዉ መሆኑን የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር ዛሬ ዐስታወቀ። በተሐዋሲው የተጠረጠሩት አራቱም ኢትዮጵያዊያን ናቸዉ ተብሏ። ሦስቱ ኢትዮጵያዉያን ቫይረሱ በተከሰተበት ኹዋን ከተባለዉ የቻይና ግዛት የመጡ መኾናቸውም ተገልጧል። ዶቼ ቬለ ያነጋገራቸዉ በኢትዮጵያ ጤና ሚኒስቴር የሚኒስትር ጽ/ ቤት ዋና ጸሐፊ ዶክተር ሙኒር ካሳ እንደተናገሩት ኮሮና ተሐዋሲ ተስፋፍቶበታል ተብሎ ከተነገረባቸው ከተሞች ብሎም በአጠቃላይ ከቻይና የሚመጡ ተጓዦች ላይ ቦሌ ዓለም አቀፍ አዉሮፕላን ጣብያ ምርመራ እንደሚደረግ ተናግረዋል። «ከመጡት መካከል ትኩሳት ያለባቸውን ከኅብረተሰቡ ጋር እንዳይቀላቀሉ አድርገን [ለብቻቸው እናቆያቸዋለን] በአኹኑ ሰአት አራት አብዛኛው ኢትዮጵያያውያን የኾኑ ተማሪዎች ከዚህ ሀገር ስለመጡ፤ ከመጡት መካከል ደግሞ ኹለቱ እንደ ጉንፋን ነገር ስላላቸው ከኅብረተሰቡ እንዳይቀላቀሉ ለይተን አስቀምጠናቸዋል። በአኹኑ ሰአት ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ የዚህ ቫይረስ ተገኘ ተብሎ የተባለው ውሸት ሙሉ ለሙሉ ውሸት ነው። የሰጠነው መግለጫም የሚያሳየው ይኼንን እንጠረጥራለን፤ ማንኛውም ትኩሳት ያለው እና ከነዚህ አካባቢ የሚመጣን ሰው ስክሪን እያደረግን ወደሀገር ውስጥ እንዳይገባ እየተከላከልን ነው።»ቀደም ሲል የአፍሪቃ ኅብረት የበሽታዎች መቆጣጠሪያ እና መከላከያ ማዕከል በሰጠዉ መግለጫ የኮሮና ተሐዋሲን ለመከላከል ከኢትዮጵያ ጋር በቅርበት እየተሠራ ነዉ ብሏል።
Jan 26, 2020 at 01:09 PM
Informer : Askwala
የቻይናው ፕሬዝዳንት ዢ ጂንፒንግ በፍጥነት በመስፋፋት ላይ በሚገኘው እና 1,300 ሰዎችን በያዘው አዲስ ቫይረስ ሳቢያ አገራቸው አስጊ ሁኔታ ላይ እንደምትገኝ አስጠነቀቁ። ከዚህ ቀደም በዚያው በቻይና ተከስቶ ከነበረው የሳርስ ቫይረስ ይመሳሰላል የተባለው አዲስ የቫይረስ ወረርሽኝ በ30 ግዛቶች ተስፋፍቷል። ከቻይና ውጪ በጃፓን፣ በደቡብ ኮሪያ እና በአሜሪካም ይኸው ቫይረስ በሰዎች ላይ ተገኝቷል። ፈረንሳይ በቫይረሱ የተያዘ ሰው በግዛቷ በማግኘት የመጀመሪያዋ የአውሮፓ አገር ሆናለች። ፈረንሳይ የቫይረሱ ሥርጭት ከበረታባት የውኻን ከተማ ዜጎቿን ለማውጣት ተዘጋጅታለች። ቫይረሱ እጅግ አደገኛ በሆነ ፍጥነት እየተስፋፋ መሆኑን የተናገሩት ፕሬዝዳንት ዢ ጂንፒንግ ቻይናን የሚመራው ፓርቲ ማዕከላዊ ኮሚቴ በጠንካራ አመራር መፍትሔ መሻት እንዳለበት አሳስበዋል።ውኻን የተባለችው የአስራ አንድ ሚሊዮን ሰዎች መኖሪያ ከተማን ጨምሮ ሌሎች 18 የቻይና ከተሞች የሕዝብ መጓጓዣዎችን ሙሉ በሙሉ አግደዋል። በውኻን አጠገብ ቻይና በቫይረስ የተያዙ ሕሙማንን ለማከም 10,000 አልጋዎች የሚኖሩት ሆስፒታል በ270,000 ስኩዌር ጫማ መሬት ላይ በ6 ቀናት ለመገንባት ሥራ ጀምራለች።እስካሁን 41 ሰዎችን የገደለው ቫይረስ ሥርጭትን ለመቆጣጠር ሖንግ ኮንግ በከተማዋ በርካታ ተሽከርካሪዎችን ጥቅም ላይ እንዳይውሉ ከልክላለች። ለሁለት ሳምንታት ትምህርት ቤቶች እንደሚዘጉም የሖንግ ኮንግ መሪ ላሪ ላም አስታውቀዋል። ሳይንቲስቶች ስለ ቫይረሱ ዛሬም በቂ መረጃ ባይኖራቸውም ከእንስሳት ወደ ሰው ሳይሸጋገር እንዳልቀረ ይነገራል። EB-LA
Jan 24, 2020 at 01:03 PM
Informer : Rediet
Jan 24, 2020 at 01:00 PM
Informer : Rediet
Jan 24, 2020 at 12:57 PM
Informer : Rediet
Jan 24, 2020 at 12:56 PM
Informer : Rediet
Nov 08, 2019 at 09:10 AM
Informer : Space
B. Hereditary Factors
Evidence suggests that heredity plays a role in developing cancer. Some gene mutations associated with cancer are inherited. For example, inheriting mutated tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 greatly increases a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer. About 50 to 60 percent of women with inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations will develop breast cancer by the age of 70. Inherited mutations in the genes MSH2, MLH1, PMS1, and PMS2, all of which repair DNA, are especially prevalent in a rare form of hereditary colon cancer.
Scientists suspect that many other hereditary factors contribute to cancer. In addition to inherited mutations, other genetic variations, particularly those influencing how the body responds to carcinogens, may create a greater susceptibility to cancer. The identities of the majority of these genetic variations are not yet known.
C. Steroid Hormones
Medical research suggests that cancers of the reproductive organs may be affected by naturally occurring steroid hormones produced by the endocrine system. These hormones stimulate reproductive organ cells to divide and grow. In women, relatively high or long exposure to the female sex hormone estrogen seems to increase the risk of breast and uterine cancers. Thus, early age at first menstruation, late age at menopause, having a first child after age 30, and never having children, all of which affect the duration of estrogen exposure in the body, increase the risk for these cancers. Studies also indicate that hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in which women take estrogen to offset the unpleasant effects of menopause, increases the risk of breast cancer. Male sex hormones, particularly testosterone, appear to play a role in cancers of the male reproductive organs, but this role is not yet well understood.
D. Population Demographics
Population studies show that a person’s age, race, and gender affect the probability that he or she will develop cancer. Most cancers occur in adults middle-aged or older. The risk of cancer increases as individuals age because genetic mutations accumulate slowly over many years, and the older a person is, the more likely that he or she will have accumulated the collection of mutations necessary to turn an otherwise healthy cell into a cancerous cell. More than three-fourths of all cancers in North America are diagnosed in people over age 55.
Statistics show that men are more likely to develop cancer than women. In the United States, nearly half of all men will develop cancer at some point in their lifetimes, whereas slightly more than one-third of women will. Cancer statistics for Canada are similar. Stomach cancer is nearly twice as common in men as in women, as are certain types of kidney cancer. However, the reasons for the discrepancy between the sexes are unknown.
Some cancers are more prevalent in particular races than others. In the United States, for example, bladder cancer is twice as common in white people as in black people. White women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than are black women, but black women are more likely to die of the disease. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have the lowest breast cancer risk. On the whole, African Americans, especially men, are more likely to develop cancer—and more likely to die from it—than members of any other group in the United States. Reasons for the discrepancies between races are still not entirely clear, but many epidemiologists trace them to differences in diet and exercise, unequal access to medical care, and exposure to carcinogens.
Cancerous Human Lung pictured above shows light-colored cancerous tissue in the center of the photograph. At bottom center lies the heart. While normal lung tissue is light pink in color, the tissue surrounding the cancer is black and airless, the result of a tarlike residue left by cigarette smoke. In their cancerous state, lung cells lack the cilia that normally catch and eliminate foreign particles inhaled into the lung. Mucus ordinarily cleared by bronchial cilia becomes trapped, blocking air passages. Epidemiologists estimate that cigarette smoking is directly responsible for about 85 percent of all lung cancer.
Nov 07, 2019 at 01:12 PM
Informer : Space
1. Tobacco Smoke :-
Smoking causes up to 30 percent of cancer deaths in the United States and Canada,
making tobacco smoke the most lethal carcinogen in North America. Smoking is
associated with cancer in the lungs, esophagus, respiratory tract, bladder, pancreas,
and probably cancers of the stomach, liver, and kidneys. The risk of cancer increases
depending on the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the cigarette’s tar content,
and how many years a person smokes. Starting to smoke while young significantly
increases the risk of developing cancer.
Each year in the United States, several thousand nonsmoking adults die of lung cancer caused by exposure to the smoke of others’ cigarettes, called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke. Nonsmoking spouses of smokers are 30 percent more likely to develop lung cancer than those married to nonsmokers. Breathing secondhand smoke also increases the risk of cancer in the children of smokers and in nonsmokers who work in smoky places. For this reason smoking has been banned in many places such as restaurants and bars.
Cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco have also been implicated in increased risk for cancer. Cigars contain most of the same cancer-producing chemicals as cigarettes, and people who smoke cigars have a 30 percent higher risk of developing cancer than nonsmokers. Oral cancers occur more frequently in people who use smokeless tobacco, or snuff. Snuff users, for example, are 50 times more likely to develop cancers of the cheek or gum than nonusers.
2. Diet :-
Diet can also contribute to cancer. Saturated fats from red meats, such as hamburger or steak, and high-fat dairy products are linked with several cancers. High salt intake increases the risk of stomach cancer. Adult obesity increases the risk for cancer of the uterus in women and also appears to increase the risk for cancers in the breast, colon, kidney, and gallbladder. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer of the esophagus and stomach, especially when combined with smoking.
3. Pathogens :-
Some carcinogens are living organisms. Certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites account for about 15 percent of all cancer deaths in the United States. Cancer-causing viruses include the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus responsible for 70 to 80 percent of all cases of cancer of the cervix. Hepatitis B and C viruses cause almost 80 percent of all liver cancer in the world. Epstein-Barr virus can also be carcinogenic, causing cancer of the lymphatic system. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or a type of herpesvirus can lead to rare cancers of the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium associated with stomach ulcers, likely causes cancer of the stomach. Researchers have linked a polyomavirus to a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma.
In developing countries, parasitic organisms are major carcinogens. In parts of Africa, China, and southern Asia, infestation with the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis causes a form of liver cancer. In North Africa, infection with the parasite Schistosoma haematobium causes cancer of the bladder.
4. Radiation :-
Exposure to electromagnetic radiation, invisible, high-energy light waves such as sunlight and X rays, accounts for a small percentage of cancer deaths (see Radiation Effects, Biological). Most cancer deaths from radiation are from skin cancer, which is triggered by too much sun exposure. Sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface contains two kinds of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV-A and UV-B both contribute to sunburn and skin cancer as well as to conditions such as premature wrinkling of the skin. Depletion of the ozone layer, which absorbs ultraviolet radiation in the upper atmosphere, will continue to increase skin damage and skin cancer rates in the future.
Radon, a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas, seeps from the Earth in some regions of the United States. Breathing the gas over a long period has been linked to a small number of lung cancer cases. Providing adequate air circulation in a building reduces exposure to radon. Infrequently, radiation exposure associated with medical treatments, such as therapeutic radiology, leads to cancer.
5. Environmental and Occupational Chemicals :-
Air pollution, water pollution, and pollutants in the soil contribute particularly to lung and bladder cancer. Lung cancer rates are generally higher in cities, where increased industry and automobile traffic produce air pollution. Some people encounter carcinogenic chemicals in their working environment. Occupational carcinogens include such industrial chemicals as benzene, asbestos, vinyl chloride, aniline dyes, arsenic, and certain petroleum products.
To be continued...
Nov 07, 2019 at 12:48 PM
Informer : Space
Cancer :- any of more than 100 diseases characterized by excessive, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells, which invade and destroy other tissues. Cancer develops in almost any organ or tissue of the body, but certain types of cancer are more life-threatening than others. In the United States and Canada cancer ranks as the second leading cause of death, exceeded only by heart disease. Each year, about 1.7 million Americans and more than 150,000 Canadians are diagnosed with cancer, and more than half a million Americans and about 70,000 Canadians die of the disease.
For reasons not well understood, cancer rates vary by gender, race, and geographic region. For instance, more men than women develop cancer, and African Americans are more likely to develop cancer than people of any other racial group in North America. The frequency of certain cancers also varies globally. For example, breast cancer is more common in wealthy countries, and cervical cancer is more common in poor countries.
Although people of all ages develop cancer, most types of cancer are more common in people over the age of 50. Cancer usually develops gradually over many years, the result of a complex mix of environmental, nutritional, behavioral, and hereditary factors. Scientists do not completely understand the causes of cancer, but they know that certain lifestyle choices can reduce the risk of developing many types of cancer. Not smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising moderately for at least 30 minutes each day can lower the likelihood of developing cancer.
Just 60 years ago a cancer diagnosis carried little hope for survival because doctors understood little about the disease and how to control it. Today about two-thirds of all Americans diagnosed with cancer live longer than five years. While it is difficult to claim that a cancer patient is disease free, long-term survival significantly improves if the patient has had no recurrence of the cancer for five years after the initial diagnosis. For years, death rates from cancer were rising in developing countries. In 2006 the American Cancer Society reported that the number of cancer deaths in the United States dropped for two years in a row. The decrease was attributed to a decline in smoking, earlier detection, and improved treatment.
Nov 06, 2019 at 04:00 PM
Informer : Space
Mental Retardation, disorder in which a person’s overall intellectual functioning is well below average, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) around 70 or less. Individuals with mental retardation also have a significantly impaired ability to cope with common life demands and lack some daily living skills expected of people in their age group and culture. The impairment may interfere with learning, communication, self-care, independent living, social interaction, play, work, and safety. Mental retardation appears in childhood, before age 18.
About 1 percent of the general population has mental retardation, although some estimates range as high as 3 percent. Mental retardation is slightly more common in males than in females. It occurs in people of all racial, ethnic, education, and economic backgrounds.
Nov 01, 2019 at 03:12 PM
Informer : Space
በቻይና የሚገኘው የሻንጋይ ዡሂ ሆስፒታል የ5ጂ ኔትወርክን በመጠቀም የመጀመሪያውን የርቀት ቀዶ ጥገና በተሳካ ሁኔታ ማከናወኑ ተዘግቧል፡፡
ቀዶ ጥገናው በሆስፒታሉ ክፍል የተከናወነ ሲሆን የቀዶ ጥገና መሳሪያው ግን የሚታዘዘው 30 ኪ.ሜ ርቀት ላይ ከሚገኘው ከሻንጋይ አለም አቀፍ የሕክምና ማእከል ነበር ተብሏል፡፡
በሻንጋይ ዡሂ ማእከላዊ ሆስፒታል የራዲዮሎጂይ ሀላፊ የሆኑትና ቀዶ ጥገናውን የመሩት ዶክተር ዡ ዮንጉሃ እንደገለፁት “ከዚህ በፊት ቀዶ ጥገና በማከናውንበት ወቅት ከሕመምተኞቹ ጎን በመቀመጥ ምላሻቸውን በጥልቀት መከታተል ነበረብኝ፤ አሁን ግን በፈጣኑ የ5ጂ ኔትወርክ እገዛ፣ ከህመምተኞቹ በርካታ ኪሎ ሜትሮች በመራቅ ቀዶ ጥገናውን ማከናወን ችያለሁ” ብለዋል።
በታካሚው ሰውነት ውስጥ የታመሙትን ዕጢዎች ለማስወገድ የቀዶ ጥገና መሣሪያውን በርቀት በመቆጣጠር ሐኪሙ በ“ቢ-አልትራሳውንድ” መመሪያ እና በኮምፒውተር በመታገዝ ህክምናውን እንዳከናወነ ነው የተገለፀው።
የቀዶ ጥገናው በ4ጂ ቴክኖሎጂ ፈፅሞ ሊከናወን እንደማይችልም ባለሞያዎቹ ተናግረዋል፡፡
ምንጭ፡- አይ ቲ አይ ጄ
Oct 15, 2019 at 02:54 PM
Informer : Space
Genetic Engineering, alteration of an organism\'s genetic, or hereditary, material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce desirable new ones. Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production; to help dispose of industrial wastes; and to diagnose disease, improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs. Included in genetic engineering techniques are the selective breeding of plants and animals, hybridization (reproduction between different strains or species), and recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
the above Fig illustrates that (Kinki university/Reuters:
Two of eight calves cloned from cells obtained from one adult cow stand in a field in Ishikawa, Japan. The calves were cloned by researchers at Kinki University in Nara, Japan. The results of the cloning experiment were published in 1998.
Oct 09, 2019 at 03:49 PM
Informer : Bereket
World Sight Day—the most important advocacy and communications day in the eye health calendar—is on 10 October 2019. When was the last time you got an eye exam? Your family, friends and colleagues? This World Sight Day, let’s pledge to take an eye exam—and encourage others to do the same! We have the data and evidence. We also have projections into the future–an ageing world population, myopia and diabetic retinopathy are set to increase vision impairment in the coming decades.
Cataract, refractive errors, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, AMD, ROP—eye care issues impact every age group and their well-being. What’s the first thing you can do? Plan for an eye examination. Look around in your family, especially for those who are vulnerable: young, school-going children, the elderly, those with diabetes.
World Sight Day 2019 will be on 10 October 2019. This year’s call to action:
More than a billion people cannot see well, because they don’t have access to glasses. Over 3 out of 4 of the world’s vision impaired are avoidably so. What can be done to arrest this unconscionable fact? First, arm yourself with your country’s prevalence data and Eye Health system information–the number of trained eye health personnel, your country’s plans to tackle blindness.
This World Sight Day, let’s find the solutions to ensure that everyone, everywhere has access to sight. Let’s pledge to make Vision First!
Sep 16, 2019 at 03:39 PM
Informer : Wegen Fantu
Once doctors have established that a patient is having a stroke, the treatment focuses on removing the obstruction, restoring blood flow to the deprived region of the brain, and preventing the development of complications. In the past, doctors could do little to treat stroke patients until the stroke had run its course. However, a promising advance occurred in June 1996, when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for use in treating ischemic strokes. The drug is a thrombolytic agent—or clot buster—that can break up blood clots and thereby restore flow through the obstructed blood vessel when administered within the first three hours of a stroke. This small window of effectiveness makes it more critical than ever for patients to seek immediate medical attention when strokelike symptoms develop.
After a patient is stabilized, recovery and rehabilitation begins. Along with the stroke survivor, family, friends, support groups, and a variety of health-care professionals are involved in this long and often difficult process. In some cases an undamaged portion of a patient’s brain is able to take over the functions that were previously performed by the damaged portion of the brain, and the patient regains the functions that were lost due to the stroke. Rehabilitation can also help restore lost functions. Physical therapy helps patients regain the use of their limbs and the ability to walk, and helps prevent muscle stiffening in patients who are paralyzed. Speech therapy can help patients regain the ability to speak. Occupational therapy improves patients’ hand-eye coordination and helps them relearn basic activities, such as dressing, cooking, and writing.
Sep 16, 2019 at 03:35 PM
Informer : Space Fantu
Scientists have identified a number of factors that increase a person’s risk for stroke. The probability of stroke increases as people get older, with those over age 65 at greatest risk. The incidence of stroke in males and females is about equal, although females are more likely to die from stroke than males. As is the case with many diseases and medical conditions, people with a family history of stroke are more likely to have a stroke themselves. Finally, a person who has already had a stroke or TIA is at greater risk of having another stroke in the future.
Fortunately, a healthy lifestyle can help minimize some risk factors for stroke, such as high blood pressure, smoking, and high blood cholesterol. High blood pressure places abnormally high stress on the walls of blood vessels which, over time, weakens and damages the vessels. Certain chemicals found in cigarette smoke can affect the properties of the blood, making it more prone to forming clots. In addition, the nicotine in cigarette smoke damages blood vessel walls and makes them more susceptible to atherosclerosis. And when excess cholesterol is present in the bloodstream, it accumulates along the walls of blood vessels, accelerating the progression of atherosclerosis and thereby increasing the risk of a stroke. Quitting smoking, controlling high blood pressure through diet or medication, eating a low-fat, healthy diet, and becoming physically active can greatly decrease a person’s risk of having a stroke.
For people who have blood vessel abnormalities that can lead to a stroke, or who have already had a stroke or TIA, a variety of steps can be taken to prevent a first or second stroke from occurring. To prevent the blood vessel obstructions that cause ischemic strokes, physicians try to maximize blood flow through a narrowed vessel and minimize the risk of clotting. One common treatment is carotid endarterectomy, a surgical procedure that removes an atherosclerotic deposit from a diseased carotid artery. Sometimes anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin and warfarin are prescribed to prevent the formation of clots in patients at risk for thrombus or embolism formation.
To prevent rupture of the weakened blood vessels that cause hemorrhagic stroke, physicians try to provide an obstruction to protect a weakened vessel from further damage and redirect blood flow through normal vessels feeding the same regions of the brain. An aneurysm can be treated surgically by placing a metal clip at its base to seal off the weakened vessel. An AVM, on the other hand, is cut away from the normal brain tissue and removed. An alternative to surgery, which attempts to treat the diseased blood vessel from the outside, is endovascular therapy, which addresses the problem from within the vessel. In a typical endovascular procedure, a catheter—a long, thin, flexible tube—is inserted into a major artery, usually in the thigh, and guided through the blood vessels to the location of the aneurysm or AVM. Tiny platinum coils are then deposited from the end of the catheter into the diseased vessel, providing a physical barrier to prevent the forces exerted by blood flow from further damaging the weakened vessel. These treatments can be beneficial even when performed after a hemorrhagic stroke because they can prevent an aneurysm or AVM from rupturing a second time and causing another stroke.
Sep 16, 2019 at 03:17 PM
Informer : Wegen
A key feature of stroke symptoms is that they are unexpected and develop suddenly, though they may worsen over the next several hours or days. The symptoms often primarily affect only one side of the body because blood flow is cut off to only part of the brain during a stroke. One of the most common symptoms is a sudden weakness or numbness of one side of the face or of one arm or leg. Some stroke sufferers experience a sudden dimness or loss of vision, particularly in only one eye. They may also suddenly become unable to speak or have trouble understanding speech. Sudden, severe headaches with no known cause and sudden, unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, or falls, can also be warning signs of a stroke. Anyone who experiences one or more of these symptoms should seek medical attention immediately.
The majority of stroke patients are left with some form of permanent disability that interferes with normal daily activities, such as walking, speech, vision, understanding, reasoning, and memory. The specific effects of a stroke vary greatly depending on what part of the brain was deprived of oxygen. For example, if blood flow is cut off from an area of the brain that controls speech, the stroke will result in a speech disability such as slurring or aphasia—the inability to express oneself through speech or writing, or the inability to understand speech.
If the stroke damages the area of the brain that controls motor skills, a patient may have trouble walking or moving an arm. Various forms of paralysis—especially hemiplegia, or paralysis affecting one side of the body—are common after a stroke. In addition to its physical consequences, a stroke can also have psychological effects. People who have had a stroke often become depressed or feel angry and frustrated at their inability to perform tasks that, before the stroke, were easy or automatic.
Sep 16, 2019 at 02:57 PM
Informer : Wegen
Stroke, brain damage caused by a lack of blood flow to part of the brain. In order to perform its many functions and direct activities throughout the body—from walking to seeing to reasoning—the brain requires a constant supply of energy, provided by the oxygen and nutrients that are delivered by the flowing blood. If blood flow is restricted or cut off at any point between the heart and the brain, portions of the brain relying on blood from the obstructed blood vessel become deprived of oxygen. Brain cells are extremely sensitive to such oxygen deprivation, and if they are deprived of oxygen and nutrients for more than several minutes, they, in effect, starve to death. A stroke results in permanent damage to the brain tissue—and in many cases, permanent disability for the patient. For example, a patient who has had a stroke may develop paralysis on one or both sides of the body; have difficulty with walking, eating, or other daily activities; or lose the ability to speak or understand speech.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. According to the American Heart Association, approximately 700,000 Americans suffer a stroke each year; about 25 percent of these strokes are fatal. Someone suffers a stroke every 45 seconds, and every 3.1 minutes someone dies of a stroke. Stroke is responsible for an estimated $40 billion in health-care costs and lost productivity each year.
Sep 03, 2019 at 03:13 PM
Informer : Rediet
Dr. Gupta says: No one should die of cancer, except by carelessness; (1) The first step is to stop all sugar consumption, without sugar in the body, the cancer cell would die a natural death. (2) The second step is to mix a lemon in a cup of hot water and drinking it for 1-3 months will make the cancer go away ... according to research from the Maryland College of Medicine, it is 1000 times better than chemotherapy. (3) The third step is to drink 3 tablespoons of organic coconut oil, morning and night, and the cancer would disappear, you can choose any of the two therapies after avoiding the sugar. Ignorance is not an excuse; I have been sharing this information for more than 5 years. Let everyone around you know. God bless you. "Dr. Guruprasad Reddy BV, OSH STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY MOSCOW, RUSSIA We encourage every person who receives this newsletter to send it to ten other people, without a doubt at least one life will be saved ... I did my part, I hope I can help to do your part, thanks! ✍ Drinking hot water with lemon can prevent cancer Do not add sugar Hot lemon water is more beneficial than cold lemon water Hot lemon water kills cancer cells ✍ Add hot water 2-3 lemon slices Make it a daily drink The bitterness in hot water with lemon is the best substance to kill cancer cells Cold lemon water has only vitamin C, there is no prevention against cancer. Lemon hot water can control cancer tumor growth ✍ Clinical trials have shown that hot water with lemon works. ✍ This type of treatment with lemon extract will only destroy malignant cells. gnas, does not affect healthy cells.✍ Then ... citric acid and lemon polyphenol in lemon juice, can help reduce high blood pressure, ✍ effective prevention of deep vein thrombosis, improve blood circulation✍ and reduce blood clots. No matter how busy you are, please find the time to read this, and then share all of your freinds.
Aug 30, 2019 at 11:43 AM
Informer : Wegen
ድንገተኛ ሞትን እንከላከል
በምሽት ወይም በእንቅልፍ ሰአት የሚከሰትን ድንገተኛ ሞት ለመከላከል የህክምና ባለሙያወች ምክር
ከእንቅልፋችን በድንገት ተነስተን ሽንታችንን ለመሽናት ከመሄዳችን በፊት ለ ሶስት (3) እና አራት (4) ደቂቃወች ማድረግ ያለብን ጥንቃቄወች አሉ!
አንዳንዴ ሰወች ጥሩ የጤንነት ሁኔታ ላይ እና ቁመና ላይ ሁነው በድንገት ምሽት ላይ ህይወታቸው ያልፋል። ከዚህ ጋ ተያይዞ አንዳንድ ሰወች ትናንት እኮ አውርቸው ነበር እንዴት በድንገት ሞተ? ሲሉ ይደመጣሉ።
ነገሩ እንዲህ ነው
በድንገት ከእንቅልፋችን ተነስተን ወደ ሽንት ቤት በምንሄድበት ጊዜ አእምሮአችን የደም ዝውውር ላይኖረው ይችላል።
ስለዚህ ሶስት(3) እና አራት (4) የሆኑ ደቂቃወች እንዴት ወሳኝ ሊሆኑ ቻሉ?
በእኩለ ሌሊት ከእንቅልፋችን ተነስተን ሽንታችንን ለመሽናት በድንገት ወደ ሽንት ቤት በምንሄድበት ጊዜ የልብ ምታችን የደም ዝውውራችን ጋ በተያያዘ እክል ይገጥመዋል።
በድንገት በምንነሳበት ጊዜ አእምሮአችን እና ልባችን በሚያጋጥመው የደም እጥረት ስራውን መስራት ሊያቆም ይችላል።
ከዚህም ጋ በተያያዘ በተነሳንት ባሉት 3 እና 4 ደቂቃወች የሚመከሩ እና ማድረግ ያለብን ጉዳዮች
1.እንደነቃን ለ 1 ደቂቃ እና 1 ደቂቃ ከግማሽ ባሉት ደቂቃወች ከአልጋችን መቆት።
2.እሰከ ቀጠዮ ሁለት ደቂቃ አልጋው ላይ መቀመጥ
3.እግራችንን ከአልጋው አውርደን ለ ግማሽ ደቂቃ ያክል አልጋው ጠርዝ ላይ መቀመጥ
ከ ሶስት(3) እና ግማሽ ደቂቃ በኃላ አእምሯችን እና ልባችን በደም እጥረት የመጠቃት እድሉ አነስተኛ ስለሆነ በድንገት የመሞት አጋጣሚን መቀነስ ይቻላል!!!
ይህ ችግር ምንም እድሜ የማይገድበው ስለሆነ ለወዳጅ ዘመድዎ በማጋራት የተሻለ ግንዛቤን እንፍጠር
Apr 16, 2019 at 12:06 PM
Informer : Wegen Fantu
An outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) that has killed more than 700 people and is continuing to spread does not constitute an international emergency, the World Health Organization said on Friday.
Declaring the epidemic a “public health emergency of international concern” would have signaled that greater resources and international coordination are needed.
The WHO’s independent Emergency Committee, which analyzed the latest data, said the disease was entrenched in several epicenters in the northeast and was being transmitted in health care settings.
It had not spread across borders to Uganda, Rwanda or South Sudan, but neighboring countries should shore up their preparedness, the experts said.
“It was an almost unanimous vote that this would not constitute a PHEIC (public health emergency of international concern) because we are moderately optimistic that this outbreak can be brought into control - not immediately, but still within a foreseeable time,” panel chairman Professor Robert Steffen told a news conference.
Dozens of new cases reported this week have been mainly in the epicenters of Butembe, Katwe and Vuhovi, said Mike Ryan, head of the WHO’s health emergencies program.
“It’s quite a focused amplification of disease in a very specific geographic area,” Ryan said.
“But the disease there has risen because of lack of access to that community, we’ve fallen behind in starting vaccination rings,” he said, referring to attacks on health centers by armed groups in February that cut-off hotspot areas.
“Vaccine is proving to be a highly effective way of stopping this virus but if we can’t vaccinate people we cannot protect them,” he added, noting that nearly 100,000 people have been vaccinated.
Experts have declared four emergencies in the past decade: the H1N1 virus that caused an influenza pandemic (2009), a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa (2014), polio (2014) and Zika virus (2016).
Some experts expressed concern that the Emergency Committee was too narrowly interpreting WHO guidelines.
“This is a deeply concerning event, due to the pathogen itself, the total number of cases, the increase in cases just this week, and the difficulty of coordinating the response due to conflict - that needs to receive the appropriate level of attention,” health experts Rebecca Katz and Alexandra Phelan of Georgetown University in Washington D.C. said in a statement.
The Ebola outbreak - by far the biggest Congo has seen, and the world’s second largest in history - was declared by national authorities in August. It is concentrated in Congo’s North Kivu and Ituri provinces.
It has already infected at least 1,206 people, of whom 764 have died - giving a death rate of 63 percent.
They include 20 new cases reported by the health ministry on Thursday, another one-day record after 18 on Wednesday. Two workers at the Butembo airport tested positive, it said.
Apr 16, 2019 at 12:00 PM
Informer : Wegen Fantu
Roughly half of patients with cancer have symptoms of insomnia, and many may have sleep problems that linger for at least a year, a small study suggests.
Up to 10 percent of adults in the developed world suffer from chronic insomnia, and cancer patients are particularly prone to it, researchers note in Sleep Medicine. Even though sleep disorders have been tied to worse outcomes for cancer patients, research to date on hasn’t offered a clear picture of what circumstances might make sleep problems more likely in people being treated for tumors.
For the current study, researchers examined data on 405 cancer patients in Germany who were 59 years old on average and completed two assessments of insomnia severity: once when they joined the study and again twelve months later.
The most common malignancies were breast cancer, tumors of the prostate or testicles, and colorectal cancer.
Most patients - 83 percent - were being treated for a first-time cancer. The rest of them had a relapses or secondary tumors in a different location than the original cancer.
At the start of the study, 49 percent of the patients had insomnia symptoms, and 13 percent had severe enough sleep problems to meet the clinical definition of insomnia, the study found.
After a year, 64 percent of the patients who started out with insomnia were still suffering from symptoms.
“This matters for patients because they may assume that their insomnia will disappear over time, as their cancer treatment concludes or their mood improves,” said Eric Zhou of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston.
“Unfortunately, this is often not the case,” Zhou, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email.
By the end of the year-long study, 53 percent of women and 39 percent of men had insomnia symptoms.
For women, the only factor that appeared to influence whether they had insomnia at the end of the study is whether they had it at the start.
With men, however, having depression or using psychiatric medications at the start of the study was associated with a greater risk of insomnia by the end.
Among both women and men, levels of distress, depression and anxiety increased over the year.
The study wasn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how cancer might cause insomnia or if sleep problems might impact outcomes for people with cancer.
Another limitation is that study participants may not have accurately recalled and reported on any symptoms, lead author Katharina Schieber of Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg and colleagues write. Schieber didn’t respond to requests for comment.
Still, the results offer fresh evidence that cancer-related insomnia won’t go away on its own, said Sheila Garland of Memorial University, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada.
“Insomnia may be more prevalent in cancer for a few reasons,” Garland, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email.
“First, the psychological effects of a cancer diagnosis and the impact of treatments are enough on their own to lead to problems sleeping,” Garland said. “But other behaviors may either make sleep worse or make it more likely that a short-term or temporary sleep problem becomes a chronic and long-standing disorder known as insomnia.”
Making matters worse, cancer patients who worry about insomnia compromising their cancer outcomes are apt to develop even worse and more frequent insomnia, Garland said.
“The best advice is to seek help early instead of trying to fix it on your own,” Garland advised.
img source: Mayo Clinic
Apr 12, 2019 at 03:18 PM
Informer : Space
About one-third of U.S. women have used marijuana before sex, a small study suggests, and those who do report increased desire and better orgasms.
Marijuana use has been on the rise among U.S. adults as a growing number of states pass laws legalizing it for medical and recreational purposes, researchers note in Sexual Medicine. Although marijuana is thought to act on the cannabinoid receptor in the brain, which is involved in sexual function, little research to date has examined the drug’s impact on sexual health, the study team notes.
The researchers surveyed 373 female patients at an obstetrics and gynecology practice in an academic medical center in Saint Louis, Missouri. Overall, 127 women, or 34 percent, reported using marijuana before sexual activity.
Women who used marijuana before sex were twice as likely as those who didn’t to say they had “satisfactory” orgasms, the survey found. And women who regularly used the drug were twice as likely as occasional users to have satisfying orgasms.
“What’s new about this study is that marijuana is framed as being useful for sex,” said Joseph Palamar, a population health researcher at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City who wasn’t involved in the study.
“Typically, drugs are investigated as risk factors for sex. I think this paper signifies that times are changing,” Palamar said by email.
Like alcohol and many recreational drugs, marijuana has long been linked to an increased risk of sexual activity among teens, and some previous research has also tied marijuana to unsafe sex and higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases.
In the current study, however, Dr. Becky Lynn of Saint Louis University School of Medicine and colleagues focused on the connection between marijuana and women’s satisfaction with their sex lives, sex drive, orgasms, lubrication and pain during intercourse. Lynn didn’t respond to requests for comment.
Overall, 197 women in the study, or about 52 percent, didn’t use marijuana at all. Another 49 women, or 13 percent, used the drug but didn’t indulge before sex.
Women who did use marijuana before sex appeared to have more lubrication and less pain during intercourse than women who didn’t, but the differences were too small to rule out the possibility they were due to chance.
Compared to occasional marijuana users, women who regularly used the drug reported better lubrication, and increased satisfaction with their sex lives - but here, too, the differences were too small to rule out the possibility of chance.
Beyond its small size, one limitation of the study is that it wasn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how marijuana might directly impact sexual health. It’s also unclear whether women smoked pot or used another form of the drug, or if this was the only substance women were using that might alter their sexual function.
Another drawback is that the study included mostly white women who were married or in relationships, making it possible the results don’t represent what all women would experience. And, the study didn’t explicitly spell out what type of “sex” it was asking about, making it difficult to say for sure what types of activity might be impacted by marijuana use.
“It is unknown how experienced these women were with marijuana or in combining marijuana and sex. We also don’t know who intentionally combined marijuana with sex,” Palamar said.
“A lot more research is needed as very few studies have focused on the positives of marijuana and sex,” Palamar added.
Apr 11, 2019 at 02:45 PM
Informer : Wegen
When cancer patients are current smokers, their treatment is likely to be less effective and more expensive than if they quit smoking, a U.S. study suggests.
The added cost largely stems from additional treatments needed after continuing smokers fail to respond to first-line cancer therapies, and totals roughly $11,000 per person, the study team calculates.
While smoking cessation after a cancer diagnosis has been found to improve survival odds, studies to date have not provided a clear picture of how treatment outcomes and costs are affected when smokers don’t quit, researchers note in JAMA Network Open.
“Chemicals from cigarette smoke affect virtually all cells in the body, including cancer cells,” said lead study author Dr. Graham Warren of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.
“Smoking increases the chances that cancer will not have a good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and increases the chance that cancer will have spread to a more advanced stage,” Warren said by email. “This increases the risk that standard cancer treatments will not be as effective, thus leading to an increased risk of recurrence.”
About one in five cancer patients are current smokers, the researchers estimate based on data from a 2014 U.S. Surgeon General report. Building on this report, they created a model to calculate the added cost of treating smokers.
They assumed 30 percent of nonsmokers fail to respond to initial treatment and that 20 percent of cancer patients are current smokers. Based on past research, they also assumed that smokers are 60 percent more likely than nonsmokers to fail to respond to initial treatment.
In addition, researchers assumed an average added cost of $100,000 for treating every patient who fails to respond to initial treatments.
With this model, the study team calculated that the additional incremental cost of treating every 1,000 patients would be $2.1 million, reflecting an extra cost of $10,678 for every smoking patient.
Across 1.6 million patients diagnosed with cancer in the U.S. each year, this would add up to potential added annual costs of $3.4 billion, the study team concludes.
One limitation of the analysis is the lack of specific cost estimates for so-called second-line treatments, which are the options that doctors try when patients don’t respond to initial treatment regimens, the study authors note.
Cost estimates in the analysis also don’t include many expenses related to smoking, including mortality from other causes, toxic effects of cancer treatment and the risk of developing multiple types of cancer, the researchers also point out.
The researchers also didn’t calculate how costs might be affected if smoking cessation therapy was a standard part of care for smokers diagnosed with cancer.
Still, the results should give smokers with cancer yet another reason to quit, said Cara Petrucci, co-author of an accompanying editorial and a researcher at the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, New York.
“Something as simple as helping cancer patients quit smoking can result in better clinical outcomes for the patient but also save billions of dollars in healthcare costs,” Petrucci said by email. “Every cancer care facility should be screening every patient for tobacco use and offering every available means to help those patients quit smoking as soon as possible.”
Apr 10, 2019 at 02:57 PM
Informer : Wegen Fantu
People with Parkinson’s disease may have less anxiety and depression when they practice yoga focused on mindfulness and breathing exercises, a small experiment suggests.
Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Classic motor symptoms include tremors, rigidity, slowed movements, and postural instability - but patients with Parkinson’s can also experience a variety of cognitive problems as well as psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety, researchers note in JAMA Neurology.
For the study, researchers randomly assigned 138 adults with Parkinson’s to participate in eight weeks of either a mindfulness yoga program or an exercise program focused on stretching and resistance training to improve mobility and stability. All of the participants could stand and walk without canes or walkers.
Yoga was just as effective as stretching and resistance training for improving motor dysfunction and mobility, the study found.
But people who did yoga experienced greater reductions in anxiety, depression, and perceived hardship related to their illness. Patients in the yoga group also reported greater improvements in what’s known as health-related quality of life, or how well they’re able to function in daily activities despite their disease.
“Before the study, we knew that mind-body exercises such as yoga and stretching improve the physical health of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), however the benefit to their mental health was not known,” said lead study author Jojo Kwok of the University of Hong Kong.
“This study concludes that mindfulness yoga alleviates psychological distress, improves spiritual well-being and quality of life, not to mention motor symptoms and mobility,” Kwok said by email. “What is exciting, is that yoga has now been proven to be a better strategy than just stretching.”
Each week during the study, people in the stretching and resistance training group had one weekly 60-minute group session. They were also encouraged to practice exercises at home for 20 minutes twice a week.
People in the yoga group had one weekly 90-minute session of hatha yoga, which focuses on breathing and meditation in addition to specific poses. They, too, were told to practice at home for 20 minutes twice a week.
Mindfulness-based training programs are designed to help people focus on the present moment and accept any pain or discomfort they may be feeling. This may involve meditation techniques to cultivate awareness of the present moment during ordinary daily activities such as driving or eating, or breathing exercises and practices such as yoga to help encourage body awareness and focus on the present.
Four participants in the yoga group reported temporary mild knee pain, as did two people in the stretching and resistance training group. None of the patients had more serious side effects.
One limitation of the study is that many participants dropped out. And, it’s also possible results might be different for Parkinson’s patients with more mobility limitations, who were excluded from the trial.
Still, the results add to the evidence that hatha and other forms of yoga may be beneficial for Parkinson’s patients, said Catherine Justice, an integrative physical therapist at Hennepin Healthcare in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Particularly with the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s, however, it’s crucial that people with this condition discuss it with their yoga instructor before trying a class to minimize their risk of injury, Justice advised.
“Risk of falls could be quite high in standing or balancing poses or when transitioning to and from the floor,” Justice said. “For this reason, I recommend that anyone with Parkinson’s practice yoga next to a wall, with a sturdy chair positioned within reach with at least 2 feet of the chair on the mat.”
Parkinson’s patients may still benefit from both the physical and mental activity of yoga practice, said Dr. Martha Nance, medical director of the Park Nicollet-Struthers Parkinson’s Center in Minneapolis.
If yoga isn’t available where patients live, “it is still useful to exercise 150 minutes weekly, and other forms of mindfulness/meditation are likely to help with emotional (health) too,” Nance, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email.
Apr 10, 2019 at 02:48 PM
Informer : Wegen
Electrical brain stimulation using a non-invasive cap can help boost older people’s mental scores to those of people 20 to 30 years younger, according to a study published on Monday.
The research, published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, found that age-related decline in working memory can be reversed by stimulating two key brain areas at a specific rhythm.
The findings are early and only relate to healthy volunteers at this stage, but could point to new ways to boost brain function in people with age-related cognitive decline such as dementia and Alzheimer’s patients.
Using a technique known as electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity and a another called transcranial alternating-current stimulation (tACS), the scientists stimulated the brains of a group of young and old people and were able to modulate the brainwave interactions linked to their working memory.
The study involved 42 younger adults aged 20 to 29 and 42 older adults aged 60 to 76, who were all assessed for their performance in a working-memory task.
Working memory refers to information retained temporarily for use in immediate tasks such as reasoning and making decisions.
Without brain stimulation, the older people were slower and less accurate than the younger ones.
This was because the younger ones had higher levels of interaction and synchronisation of certain brain wave rhythms, the researchers said - suggesting that targeting these types of rhythms in the older people’s brains might help their function.
While receiving active brain stimulation, older adults improved their working-memory test scores to the levels of the younger people. The effect lasted for at least 50 minutes after the stimulation was given, said Robert Reinhart, a researcher at Boston University in the United States who co-led the study.
“By using this type of stimulation (we found) we can reconnect or resynchronise those circuits,” he told reporters in a telephone briefing.
Reinhart said that the findings opened up new avenues for research but had no immediate implications for use in medicine: “Much more basic science has to be done first.”
Neuroscientists agreed that the findings raised interesting questions about how working memory functions, and how it declines with age, but that it would need more research before being developed for clinical use.
(This story corrects paragraph four to clarify the stimulation technique)
Apr 10, 2019 at 09:58 AM
Informer : Wegen
GENEVA (Reuters) - Health officials launched a vaccination campaign in Mozambique’s cyclone-hit port city of Beira on Wednesday in an effort to contain an outbreak of cholera that has already infected more than 1,400 people, the World Health Organization (WHO) said.
Some 900,000 doses of oral cholera vaccine arrived on Tuesday in Mozambique, where Cyclone Idai last month flattened homes and unleashed widespread flooding.
The vaccination campaign is currently planned to last six days and aims to immunize 900,000 people across four districts including 500,000 in Beira.
Some 843 people were killed by the storm and subsequent flooding in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi. Humanitarian efforts are turning to preventing further loss of life due to disease.
As of Tuesday, Mozambique’s health ministry had reported 1,428 cases of cholera including one death since the outbreak was declared on 27 March.
“We shouldn’t focus too much on the numbers as there are still a lot of people who are not getting tested for cholera,” Lindmeier said. “The important thing is to get sick people into treatment as soon as possible.”
Cholera is endemic to Mozambique, which has had regular outbreaks over the past five years. About 2,000 people were infected in the last outbreak, which ended in February 2018, according to the WHO.
The scale of the damage to Beira’s water and sanitation infrastructure, coupled with its dense population, have raised fears that another epidemic would be difficult to control.
The United Nations has appealed for $392 million to fund the humanitarian response to the disaster in southern Africa for the next three months. Just $46 million in funding has been received so far.
Mar 17, 2019 at 04:35 PM
Informer : Wegen
Speaking to journalists in Geneva amid reports of a fresh attack just hours earlier on a facility in Biena health zone, close to Butembo, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus explained that the deadly disease is just one of many concerns for local people.
“These attacks could reverse the gains we have made,” the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General said. “We are working to find a balance between protecting patients and staff from attacks by armed groups and building community trust and ownership. It’s not a simple either/or situation; we must do both to end the outbreak.”
If confirmed, Thursday morning’s attack would be the fourth on treatment or transit facilities, in the last two weeks. It follows the death of an individual in the community which led to “escalating violence” and the local Ebola transit centre being “severely damaged”, Mr. Tedros said.
Hailing the bravery and commitment of those responding to the Ebola threat, the WHO Director-General added that there were scant details beyond what was already known about the latest attack.
“We have not had reports of health workers or patients injured, but we’re awaiting more information,” he said.
Last Saturday, the health chief visited a health centre in Butembo hours after it was attacked for the second time, leaving a police officer dead and medical staff injured.
Of the more than 100 armed groups active in north-eastern DRC, Mr. Tedros cited the Mai-Mai and the Allied Democratic Forces as potentially responsible.
Ebola \'an added burden\' on community in despair
“The security situation means people are worried about issues beyond health,” he said. “It’s understandable that Ebola is an added burden on an already overburdened population. This creates a challenging climate for the response. And during many of my visits that’s what I witnessed. The despair in the community. Peace or no peace.”
Despite the challenges posed by ongoing insecurity, Mr. Tedros said that gains had been made against Ebola, as it is now “concentrated” in the towns of Butembo and Katwa.
The outbreak has also been contained in 11 out of 28 communities where cases have been recorded “and we have stopped transmission in Beni, Mangina, Komanda and Oicha”, the WHO Director-General said.
There is also “increasing acceptance” by communities of Ebola responders, he insisted, noting that 90 per cent of people have agreed to being vaccinated and follow-up visits.
Latest data from the DRC authorities indicates that in the latest outbreak which began on 1 August in the Kivus, there have been 927 confirmed and probable cases of Ebola, including 584 deaths.
More than 87,000 people have been vaccinated including 27,000 health workers in DRC and 5,000 in neighbouring countries. In addition, more than 58,000 “contacts” have been registered and more than 4,200 are being monitored for signs of illness.
There are also “half as many new cases now as there were in January”, Mr. Tedros said, down from 50 cases per week to 25 cases, on average now.
Mar 14, 2019 at 05:57 PM
Informer : YouNet Technologies
World Kidney Day is annually observed on second Thursday in March. This year, it falls on March 14. The day is marked to raise awareness about the importance of kidneys and how they are related to our overall health. This year, the theme of World Kidney Day is "Kidney Health For Everyone Everywhere." The two bean-shaped organs in the body, just about the size of the fist, are essential for removing waste products from the blood and regulating the water fluid levels. Kidneys filter blood approximately 400 times a day. If the kidneys do not function well, they may lead to chronic kidney disease. Uncontrolled high blood pressure, high blood sugar over the years can be the possible reasons behind it.
KIDNEY DISEASES and TREATMENT:
Kidneys are paired organs, each sharing equally the work of removing wastes and excess water from the blood. Remarkably, a single kidney can do the job of both if one kidney is lost through injury or disease. It sometimes occurs, although rarely, that a person is born with only one kidney. Such people are able to lead normal lives.
Diseases of the kidney range from mild infection to life-threatening kidney failure. The most common form of kidney disease is an inflammation of the kidney, called pyelonephritis. Most such inflammations are caused by a bacterial infection that starts in the bladder and spreads to the kidney. Sometimes an obstruction that interferes with the flow of urine in the urinary tract can cause the disease. Symptoms of pyelonephritis include fever, chills, and back pain. Antibiotic drugs are usually given to fight the infection, which can scar the kidneys and impair their function if left untreated.
Glomerulonephritis, another common kidney disease, is characterized by inflammation of some of the kidney\'s glomeruli. This condition may occur when the body’s immune system is impaired. Antibodies and other substances form large particles in the bloodstream that become trapped in the glomeruli. This causes inflammation and prevents the glomeruli from working properly. Symptoms may include blood in the urine, swelling of body tissues, and the presence of protein in the urine, as determined by laboratory tests. Glomerulonephritis often clears up without treatment. When treatment is necessary, it may include a special diet, immunosuppressant drugs, or plasmapheresis, a procedure that removes the portion of the blood that contains antibodies.
Other common kidney disorders include kidney stones, which are small, crystallized substances, such as calcium, that form in the kidney or other parts of the urinary tract. Smaller kidney stones can pass out of the body on their own, although this can be painful. Larger stones may require surgery, or they may be broken into smaller pieces with sound waves in a procedure called ultrasonic lithotripsy.
The kidneys may be harmed whenever injury or disease affects the rest of the body. For example, diabetes mellitus (a disease caused by a malfunctioning pancreas that produces little or no insulin) can result in impaired blood flow through the kidneys. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis can travel from the lungs and infect the kidneys. Injured muscles can release large amounts of protein into the bloodstream, blocking the nephrons. Drug use, including long-term use of some prescription medications as well as illegal drugs, can also cause kidney damage. Certain birth defects may cause the kidneys to have abnormal shapes or to function improperly.
Treatment of severe kidney disease may include kidney dialysis, a procedure in which blood is circulated through a machine that removes wastes and excess fluid from the bloodstream. Some patients use dialysis for a short time, while their kidneys recover from injury or disease. Others must use dialysis for their entire lives or until they undergo a kidney transplant. Kidney transplants are the most common of all transplant operations and have excellent success rates. Unfortunately, there are not enough kidneys available for the people who need them. More than 38,000 people in the United States alone wait for a kidney transplant each year, and fewer than 12,000 of them receive this life-sustaining organ
Mar 11, 2019 at 06:21 PM
Informer : Wegen
የአርማውር ሐንሰን የምርምር ኢንስቲትዩት ከባለድርሻ አካላት ጋር በመሆን መድሐኒቱን የተላመደ ቲቢ በሽታን በአጭር ጊዜ የሚያድን ጥናት አጠናክሮ መቀጠሉን ይፋ አደረገ፡፡
መድሀኒት የተላመደ ቲቢ ህክምና ከ18 እስከ 24 ወራትን የሚወስድ ሲሆን በአርማውር ሐንሰን የምርምር ኢንስቲትዩት እየተሞከረ ያለው ጥናት ግን 6 ወር ብቻ ነው ህክምና የሚሰጠው ብለዋል የኢንስቲትዩቱ ዋና ዳይሬክትር ዶክተር ታዬ ቶሌራ አያይዘውም እስካሁን ያለው ውጤት የጥናቱን ተስፋ ሰጪነት ያሳይል ብለዋል፡፡
ጥናቱ እንደተጠናቀቀ የአለም የጤና ድርጅት የአዲሱን ጥናት ውጤት በሁሉም አገራት ተግባራዊ ያደርገዋል ተብሎም ይጠበቃል፡፡ ይህ ስራ ኢትዮጵያ መድሀኒቱን የተላመደ ቲቢ ህክምና ለአለም አቀፍ ማህበረሰብ የምታበረክተው ምርጥ የምርምር ውጤት ይሆናል ተብሏል፡፡ ኢንስቲትዩቱ የቲቢ በሽታን ብቻ ሳይሆን የሌሎችንም ህመሞች ክትባት ለመስራት በእንቅስቃሴ ላይ ነው፡፡
በወረርሽኝ መልክ ሊነሱ የሚችሉ በሽታዎችን እየተከታተለ ክትባት የሚሰራና ወረርሽኞች ሲነሱ በቁጥጥር ስር ለማዋል የተቋቋመው አለም አቀፍ ድርጅት ሴፔ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ የቦርድ ስብሰባውን በአዲስ አበባ ያካሄደ ሲሆን የቦርድ አባላቱም የአርማወር ሐንሰን የምርምር ተቋምን ጎብኝተዋል፡፡
የጤና ጥበቃ ሚኒስቴር ሚንስትር ፕሮፌሰር ይፍሩ ብርሃን ለሴፔ (CEPI) የቦርድ አባላት ኢትዮጵያ በሽታን በመከላከል እንዲሁም ደግሞ ወረርሽኝ ከተከሰተ በኋላ በመቆጣጠር ረገድ ያደረገችው ተሞክሮንና የኢትዮጵያን የጤና ኤክስቴሽን ፕሮግራም ትግበራን በዝርዝር አቅርብዋል፡፡
የአርማወር ሐንሰን የምርምር ተቋም ከሴፔ (CEPI) የቦርድ አባላት ጋር በተለያዩ ምርምሮች ላይ ለመስራት ከስምምነት ላይ የደረሱ ሲሆን ሴፔ (CEPI) ለአርማወር ሐንሰን የምርምር ተቋም የቴክኒክና የገንዘብ ድጋፍ ያደርጋል ተብሎ ይጠበቃል፡፡
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