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Inform       Today is Friday, August 14, 2020 and day 227 of the year.

In Search of a Theory of Everything

Informed 2 weeks ago

The Philosophy Behind Physics
A philosophical examination of modern physics, the laws of nature, and hypotheses about the universe
2. A rare interplay between the natural philosophies of ancient Greece and the laws of modern physics in search of one overarching principle
3. Key chapters on paradoxes of nature, numbers and shapes, and atoms of space and time  

Source:  Oxford University

Is Einstein Still Right?

Informed 2 weeks ago

Albert Einstein is often viewed as the icon of genius, and his theories are admired for their beauty and correctness. Yet the final judge of any theory is the rigorous test of experiment, not the fame of its inventor or the allure of its mathematics. For decades, general relativity has passed test after test with flying colors, including some remarkable new tests using the recently detected gravitational waves.

Still, there are reasons for doubt. Einstein's theory of gravity, as beautiful as it is, seems to be in direct contradiction with another theory he helped create: quantum mechanics. Until recently, this was considered to be a purely academic affair. But as more and more data pour in from the most distant corners of the universe, hinting at bizarre stuff called "dark energy" and "dark matter," some scientists have begun to explore the possibility that Einstein's theory may not provide a complete picture of the cosmos.

This book chronicles the latest adventures of scientists as they put Einstein's theory to the test in ever more precise and astonishing ways, and in ever more extreme situations, when gravity is unfathomably intense and rapidly churning. From the explosions of neutron stars and the collisions of black holes to the modern scientific process as a means to seek truth and understanding in the cosmos, this book takes the reader on a journey of learning and discovery that has been 100 years in the making.  

Source:  Oxford University

First Virtual Job Expo in Addis

Informed 3 weeks ago

Ethiopia’s first online Job Expo will be held in the partnership between Jobs Creation Commission and, a subsidiary of Info Mind Solutions Plc., and funding from Mastercard Foundation. The expo is planned to replace the originally organized physical version. It was forced to change the medium and go virtual as the result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

DATE: AUGUST 27, 2020
TIME: 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM (EAT)  

Source:  Jobs Creation Commission

Safe Eid al Adha practices in the context of COVID-19: Interim guidance

Informed 3 weeks ago

Eid al Adha is a festival during which Muslim families and friends unite to pray together and give alms, especially in the form of sacrificed animal meat. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this document highlights public health advice for social gatherings and religious practices that can be applied across different national contexts.  

Source:  world health organization

How To Reduce Stress And Anxiety

Informed 3 weeks ago

If having your work and life turned completely upside down by the coronavirus has you feeling more anxious than usual, you’re not alone. Here are four ways to take your stress levels down a notch. No. 1: Get moving.  

Source:  Forbes

Five Ways Productive People Manage Their Time

Informed 3 weeks ago

Ever wonder how some people are able to accomplish so much work in so little time? It all comes down to time management, and with these five tips, you can be just as productive.  

Source:  Forbes

COVID-19 Online Community

Informed 3 weeks ago

Endocrine Society is curating and developing COVID-19 resources that will support their members during this unique time, and have launched an online community about the topic. In addition to being a platform for engagement, the page also features a collection of resources about COVID-19 that were curated with their members in mind.  

Source:  Endocrine Society

How to write the perfect recommendation

Informed 3 weeks ago

Undergraduates need them for graduate-school applications; PhD students and postdocs use them to apply for fellowships and jobs; senior scientists often have to have them to apply for awards and promotions. But writing an effective and personal recommendation letter can be time-consuming — and some might struggle to know what to say. Nature spoke to three experienced professors to get their tips for writing the perfect recommendation letter.  

Source:  Nature

How To Accept The Things You Cannot Change, Like The Pandemic

Informed 3 weeks ago

The Covid-19 pandemic has been anxiety-inducing for many. Here are a psychologist’s tips for accepting the things you cannot change without stress.  

Source:  Forbes

10 Ways To Improve Your Resiliency

Informed 4 weeks ago

The more resilient you are, the more likely you are to persist in the face of adversity, not to mention be more confident, engaged and optimistic in doing so. And by adopting these behaviors, you’ll be well on your way to improving your resiliency today.  

Source:  Forbes

How do I disinfect my keyboard and mouse?

Informed 2 months ago

Keyboards can harbor lots of bacteria.

don’t harm your keyboard and cleaning them can help keep you safe during the coronavirus outbreak. For disinfecting, use an alcohol solution with at least 70% alcohol.

Sanitize the keyboard by using a disinfectant wipe or a soft, linen-free cloth dipped in isopropyl alcohol. Rub the cloth or wipe on the top and sides of each key and then clean the surface and bottom of the keyboard thoroughly. Use a new disinfectant wipe or cloth to clean the mouse.  

Source:  WebMD

A strong core: The simple, flexible, and portable workout

Informed 2 months ago

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Image name: simple workout.PNG
Strengthening your core muscles doesn’t have to be overwhelming. You can do these simple exercises anywhere and adapt them as you gain fitness.

The office workout

The following routine is a great way to ease into core work. You can do these four exercises at work, without your colleagues being any the wiser. You can do these exercises at home, too, thanks to simple variations. The front plank, for example, can be done while either leaning on your desk or using the kitchen counter to support your weight.

Equipment needed: Desk (a table or countertop is also fine), exercise mat, and sturdy chair.  

Source:  Harvard University

How to keep your kids learning vocab this summer

Informed 2 months ago

Introducing Puku Summer Camp—8 themed weeks packed with vocabulary-learning opportunities for kids ages 8-12, from your friends at Merriam-Webster! Beat the summer slump and improve vocabulary with great book recommendations and other fun activities all summer long!  

Source:  Britannica

The World’s Most Powerful Passports

Informed 2 months ago

Not all passports are created equal. A new study by Henley Passport Index ranked the world’s most powerful passports for 2020, based on where citizens can travel freely without a visa. Japan was No. 1 with access to 191 countries. Singapore was second, while South Korea and Germany tied for third. Ethiopia is 98th.


find more on the link below  

Source:  Forbes

Vacancy Announcement

Informed 2 months ago

Job Vacancy Announcement by Haramaya University.  

COVID-19 Planning and Self-Assessment Guide for Higher Education

Informed Sunday, June 21, 2020 at 05:27:36 AM

The COVID-19 Planning Guide and Self-Assessment for Higher Education is designed to be a practical planning tool to help institutions in two ways. First, the guide poses four central questions to determine if your institution is prepared to reopen for each of the major COVID-19 Phases. Second, the guide is organized into leadership, cross-functional, and functional workgroups to support comprehensive planning efforts across various institutional groups. The guide also contains links to guidelines, resources, and media reports to further supplement institutional planning.

Please find the link to the Guide:  

Source:  Open Smart EDU

What can I do about my aging face?

Informed Sunday, June 14, 2020 at 11:15:11 AM

Here is just a sample of some of the things that you can do — or get done — to give your face a more youthful appearance:

1. Sun protection:- Protecting your face from the sun is the single best way of keeping it youthful. Much of the damage comes from the UVA part of the light spectrum, so you need to put on sunscreen that protects against it and UVB light, which causes sunburn. Wearing a wide-brimmed hat is also a good idea.

2. Creams and lotions:- Moisturizers soothe dry skin and may temporarily make wrinkles less noticeable. Moisturizers for the face contain water to make them less greasy, and many have substances — glycerin, for example — that may help bind water to the skin. Exfoliant creams can improve the appearance of older skin by getting rid of dead skin cells that don't slough off as readily as they did when we were young.

3. Botulinum toxin injections:- These injections are used to treat the expression lines of the forehead and between the brows. They work by partially immobilizing the muscles that form expression lines so the skin smoothes out, although some deep expression lines may not go away. Botox is the familiar brand name. Other FDA-approved botulinum toxins are Myobloc and Dysport.

4. Dermal fillers:- Dermal fillers are used to treat lines created by lost collagen and fat. After botulinum toxin injections, dermal filler injections are the most common cosmetic procedure performed in the United States. Prime locations for the injections are two sets of parentheses: the pair of lines that extend down from the nose to the corners of the mouth, known as the nasolabial folds, and another pair that extends down from the corners of the mouth to the chin, known as marionette lines.

5. Laser treatments:- Lasers can be used to home in on certain pigments: brown, if the goal is to get rid of freckles and liver spots, red if the target is broken capillaries. They're also used for wholesale resurfacing of facial skin. The uppermost layers are stripped away, and with them, wrinkles from sun damage and scars from acne. The energy from some "nonablative" resurfacing lasers passes through the outer layer of the skin to work at a deeper level, in the dermis, to stimulate inflammation, which leads to collagen formation.

Skin needs time to recover after most laser treatments. It can take a couple of weeks to heal, depending on the type and extent of the treatment. The nonablative treatments tend to heal a bit faster.  

Source:  Harvard University

Amnesty International human rights academy

Informed Saturday, June 13, 2020 at 10:03:04 AM

Free online course from Amnesty International human rights academy  

Source:  Amnesty International

How To Boost Your Productivity

Informed Saturday, June 13, 2020 at 09:14:32 AM

More than 75% of employees admit their productivity has plummeted due to distractions related to working from home and the pandemic. And as the weather warms, it’s only going to become more challenging to keep yourself from succumbing to the summer slump. But don’t lose hope just yet—there are six strategies you can use to regain your focus.

And here’s more on everything you need to know about working from home during the coronavirus pandemic.  

Source:  Forbes

4 Tools For Lowering Anxiety In Any Situation So You Can Perform Better

Informed Monday, June 08, 2020 at 09:07 AM

Whether it's in response to an upcoming presentation, interview, round of layoffs, new position, or networking meeting, anxiety is an emotion we encounter repeatedly throughout our careers (and...lives). It's not a comfortable experience, and it's not meant to be. Anxiety is an evolutionarily adaptive emotion that keeps us safe–for example, when you're walking alone at night through a sketchy area (quit doing that)–and prepares us for coping with anticipated stressors–for example, when you're approaching a deadline and still have a crap-load to do.

Fortunately, you're not powerless, despite it often feeling that way . Here are four tools for quieting anxiety's taunts and performing like a boss:  

Source:  Forbes

5 Steps To Help You Effectively Mentor During A Pandemic

Informed Jun 06, 2020 at 11:06 AM

When teams are reimagining what it means to collaborate and communicate as a remote workforce, why not take the time to rethink mentorship, too? In a world without deskside brainstorms and watercooler chatter, this is your guide to being an effective mentor.  

Source:  Forbes

5 Unexpected Self-Care Practices To Weave Into Your Work Day

Informed Jun 06, 2020 at 10:53 AM

Try these five self-care practices, guaranteed to help you become less stressed in the long run. No. 1: Volunteer.  

Source:  Forbes

The Best Face Sunscreens For Every Skin Type

Informed Jun 06, 2020 at 09:27 AM

The Best Face Sunscreens For Every Skin Type, According To A Dermatologist  

Source:  Forbes

Wondering How To Sleep Better? These 11 Products Can Help

Informed Jun 06, 2020 at 09:22 AM

A better night's sleep may be closer than you think, thanks to the help of some of the best aromatherapy products, sound machines and eye masks. Here are 11 of the best products for a better night's sleep.  

Source:  Forbes

COVID-19 - updated guidance on use of masks

Informed Jun 06, 2020 at 09:06 AM

WHO has published updated guidance on the use of masks for control of COVID-19. Our new guidance is based on evolving evidence and provides updates on who should wear a mask, when it should be worn and what it should be made of. It remains critical that people who use masks continue to take a comprehensive approach to protecting their health, including physical distancing and hand hygiene.  

Source:  world health organization

4 ways exercise helps arthritis

Informed Jun 05, 2020 at 09:01 AM

If you suffer from the joint pain of arthritis, moving your body may be the last thing you want to think about. But regular exercise not only helps maintain joint function, it also relieves stiffness and reduces pain and fatigue.

If you have arthritis, you want to be sure your exercise routine has these goals in mind:

1. A better range of motion (improved joint mobility and flexibility):- To increase your range of motion, move a joint as far as it can go and then try to push a little farther. These exercises can be done any time, even when your joints are painful or swollen, as long as you do them gently.

2. Stronger muscles (through resistance training):- Fancy equipment isn't needed. You can use your own body weight as resistance to build muscle. For example, this simple exercise can help ease the strain on your knees by strengthening your thigh muscles: Sit in a chair. Now lean forward and stand up by using only your thigh muscles (use your arms for balance only). Stand a moment, then sit back down, using only your thigh muscles.

3. Better endurance:- Aerobic exercise — such as walking, swimming, and bicycling — strengthens your heart and lungs and thereby increases endurance and overall health. Stick to activities that don't jar your joints, and avoid high-impact activities such as jogging. If you're having a flare-up of symptoms, wait until it subsides before doing endurance exercises.

4. Better balance:- There are simple ways to work on balance. For example, stand with your weight on both feet. Then try lifting one foot while you balance on the other foot for 5 seconds. Repeat on the other side. Over time, work your way up to 30 seconds on each foot. Yoga and tai chi are also good for balance.  

Source:  Harvard University

The National Academic Digital Repository of Ethiopia

Informed Jun 04, 2020 at 11:01 AM

Open Access Repository managed and operated by the National Academic Digital Repository of Ethiopia.

Please follow this link to browse the National Academic Digital Repository of Ethiopia  

How We Can Tackle the COVID-19 Crisis Beyond Testing

Informed Jun 02, 2020 at 09:07 AM

Special COVID-19 virtual lecture with Eric Topol, MD & Jennifer Radin, PhD

Eric Topol, MD
Founder and Director
Scripps Research Translational Institute

Jennifer Radin, PhD
Scripps Research Translational Institute

Wednesday, June 3, 2020
1:00 p.m. PT/4:00 p.m. ET

If you wear a smartwatch or fitness tracker, you can play a role in monitoring the spread of COVID-19 and other viral diseases like the flu. In this Front Row lecture, Eric Topol, MD, and Jennifer Radin, PhD, discuss how they’re calling on the public to share data from wearable devices for a study that’s helping scientists flag the early onset of contagious respiratory illnesses. By harnessing this key data—including heart rates, sleep and activity levels—from hundreds of thousands of individuals, they seek to improve real-time disease surveillance.

Source:  Scripps Research Institute

These 7 Countries Have Potential To Become Major Tourist Destinations In A Post-Covid World

Informed Jun 02, 2020 at 08:14 AM

of the 54 nations that make up Africa, one could make the argument that Ethiopia has the most fascinating historic background – it was the second civilization on earth to adopt Christianity, the only African nation to defeat a European power in battle and resist colonialism during the Scramble for Africa, and it’s believed that our earliest human ancestors first came from this fertile region.

More information can be found here:  

Source:  Forbes

Tackling indoor airborne transmission of Covid-19

Informed May 30, 2020 at 08:58 AM

Preventing airborne transmission of Covid-19 should be the next front of the battle against the virus, argue experts from the University of Surrey.  

Source:  University of Technology Sydney

How to silence snoring

Informed May 24, 2020 at 10:13 AM

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Snoring by itself is generally harmless, but it can be annoying, especially for your bed partner. Fortunately, you can take steps to alleviate the problem. Start by making lifestyle changes and trying simple home remedies to alleviate the problem. You can also try one of the many products marketed as stop-snoring aids.

Lifestyle changes and home remedies
You can try these do-it-yourself suggestions to help keep your airway open during sleep:

1. Avoid alcohol—or don't drink alcohol within three hours of bedtime. This will help prevent your airway muscles from becoming slack while you sleep.

2. Do not take medications that relax your muscles in the evening. Benzodiazepines are one major group of medications to avoid. Sometimes called tranquilizers or sedatives, these medications include alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), and lorazepam (Ativan), which are usually used to treat anxiety. Benzodiazepines also may be prescribed for insomnia. Examples sometimes prescribed for this reason include estazolam (ProSom) or temazepam (Restoril). But these medications are not recommended for long-term treatment of insomnia (more than two to four weeks). Like alcohol, these drugs may relax muscles in the throat.

3. Lose weight if you are overweight or obese. Extra fat tissue in the neck and throat can narrow the airways. Losing some weight could help to open the airways for someone who is overweight or obese, although many people who are lean also snore.

4. Try home remedies for nasal obstruction issues. If your nose is stuffy due to mucus, try rinsing your sinuses with saline. If you have allergies, reduce dust mites and pet dander in your bedroom or use an allergy medication. If swollen nasal tissues are the problem, a humidifier or medication may reduce swelling.

5. If you smoke, quit. In addition to smoking's many other negative health effects, people who smoke are also more likely to snore. Possible reasons include nightly nicotine withdrawal, which can disrupt sleep, as well as increased swelling and irritation in the upper airway. In fact, even secondhand smoke from another member of your household may increase your risk of snoring.

6. Sleep on your side or elevate your head. When you sleep flat on your back, your tongue falls back and presses against the top of your airway, so sleeping on your side may help. To help you stay on your side, try pressing a body pillow(a long, oversized pillow) against your back. You can also wear a small fannypack filled with tennis balls, or tape a tennis ball or rolled-up pair of socks to the back of your pajamas. This makes lying on your back uncomfortable.

Or you can try elevating your head by using an extra pillow or a wedge pillow, or by propping up the head of your bed using blocks of wood under the top of the bed frame.

These lifestyle changes and home remedies may help with simple snoring. But if you think you may have sleep apnea, make an appointment with your doctor.  

Source:  Harvard University

InterAcademy Partnership

Informed May 23, 2020 at 04:51 AM

Under the umbrella of the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP), more than 140 national, regional and global member academies work together to support the vital role of science in seeking evidence-based solutions to the world’s most challenging problems. In particular, IAP harnesses the expertise of the world’s scientific, medical and engineering leaders to advance sound policies, improve public health, promote excellence in science education and achieve other critical development goals. see the link below  

Source:  world health organization

Game and Simulation center for Kg-12 students

Informed May 23, 2020 at 04:43 AM

Smithsonian Science Education Center offers free Smithsonian STEM games and simulations online or for download! The games are designed with clear learning objectives, vetted by a team of curriculum experts, and are used by students around the world!  

Source:  Smithsonian Science Education Center

Smithsonian Science Education Center

Informed May 23, 2020 at 04:37 AM

The Smithsonian Science Education Center (SSEC) is transforming K–12 Education Through Science in collaboration with communities across the globe. The SSEC is nationally and internationally recognized for the quality of its programs and its impact on K–12 science education.  

Source:  world health organization

Warning signs of a serious eye problem

Informed May 20, 2020 at 05:42 AM

How do you know if an eye problem is a nuisance or the start of something serious? The following signs and symptoms warrant a call to your doctor. Catching serious eye problems early can help preserve your vision. Even non-vision-threatening problems can be treated to keep your eyes comfortable and your eyesight as sharp as possible.

Call your doctor if you experience any of the following:

1. Change in iris color
2. Crossed eyes
3. Dark spot in the center of your field of vision
4. Difficulty focusing on near or distant objects
5. Double vision
6. Dry eyes with itching or burning
7. Episodes of cloudy vision
8. Excess discharge or tearing
9. Eye pain
10. Floaters or flashers
11. Growing bump on the eyelid
12. Halos (colored circles around lights) or glare
13. Hazy or blurred vision
14. Inability to close an eyelid
15. Loss of peripheral vision
16. Redness around the eye
17. Spots in your field of vision
18 Sudden loss of vision
19. Trouble adjusting to dark rooms
20. Unusual sensitivity to light or glare
21. Veil obstructing vision
22. Wavy or crooked appearance to straight lines  

Source:  Harvard University

Mindfulness training

Informed May 19, 2020 at 03:46 AM

Here is the youtube link of defining mindfulness and its practice recommended by Ohio State University  

Source:  Ohio State University

Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) press briefings

Informed May 18, 2020 at 04:19 AM

Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) press briefings  

Source:  world health organization

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) news

Informed May 18, 2020 at 04:18 AM

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) news  

Source:  world health organization

Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Informed May 18, 2020 at 04:16 AM

Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)  

Source:  world health organization

The benefits of fruits and vegetables

Informed May 14, 2020 at 05:07 AM

Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables is a cornerstone of good health. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help you:

1. Keep blood pressure under control.
2. Reach and maintain healthy cholesterol levels.
3. Keep your arteries flexible.
4. Protect your bones.
5. Keep the eyes, brain, digestive system, and just about every other part of the body healthy.  

Source:  Harvard University

EdX Free Online Courses

Informed May 12, 2020 at 06:07 AM

Want to experience the quality of education offered by premier Universities in the US, Australia, Canada, and Europe? Harvard, MIT, UC Berkeley and 9 other premier universities are offering free online courses to any student from any country. Anyone with an internet connection can apply  

Source:  edx

Advice about Eating Fish

Informed May 12, 2020 at 04:55 AM

For Women Who Are or Might Become Pregnant, Breastfeeding Mothers, and Young Children
FDA and EPA have issued advice regarding eating fish. This advice can help women who are pregnant or may become pregnant - as well as breastfeeding mothers and parents and caregivers feeding children 2 years and older - make informed choices when it comes to fish that are nutritious and safe to eat.  

Source:  Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Fish helps you think — and keeps your thinking strong

Informed May 12, 2020 at 04:46 AM

What did the researchers find? Fish was the single most important dietary factor in lowering the risk of cognitive impairment. Vegetables were second best, and all other foods showed smaller, insignificant effects. Moreover, of all the foods evaluated, only fish was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline. Eating fish lowered the risk of both cognitive impairment and cognitive decline.

Cognitive impairment versus cognitive decline:-

. Cognition is a shorthand way of saying thinking, memory, language, attention, visuospatial, and other mental abilities.

. Your risk of cognitive impairment is the risk that 10 years from now, your cognition will be worse than your peers.

.Your risk of cognitive decline is the risk that 10 years from now, your cognition will be worse than it is now.  

Source:  Harvard University

What to eat to reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Informed May 12, 2020 at 04:38 AM

Would you like reduce your risk of cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia? Researchers from around the world having been studying a variety of different factors that might reduce these risks and keep the brain healthy. One factor that a number of studies have converged on is a Mediterranean-style diet.
This diet includes:_

1. fish
2. olive oil
3. avocados
4. fruits
5. vegetables
6. nuts
7. beans
8. whole grains
9. red wine in moderation.  

Source:  Harvard University

Tips for more restful sleep, Tip one

Informed May 11, 2020 at 06:15 AM

Many things can make it hard to get a good night’s rest. People who have trouble sleeping often discover that their daily routine — work stress, anxiety, etc. — holds the key to nighttime woes.

There are some simple things you can do to make it easier to fall asleep, and to help ensure that the sleep you get is high quality. One of those is to make your bedroom as quiet as possible. You can reduce or disguise noises that can interfere with sleep by:

1. using earplugs
2. decorating with heavy curtains and rugs, which absorb sound
3. installing double-paned windows
4. adding “white noise” either by purchasing a device designed specifically to provide this kind of steady hum, running a fan, or purchasing CDs or downloading apps that provide soothing sounds.  

Source:  Harvard University

Tips for more restful sleep, Tip two

Informed May 11, 2020 at 06:14 AM

Other ways to optimize your surroundings for sleep include removing the television, telephone, and any office equipment from the bedroom. This gets rid of interruptions and reinforces that the bedroom is meant for sleeping. An ideal environment is quiet, dark, and relatively cool, with a comfortable bed and minimal clutter. Banish reminders or discussions of stressful issues to another room.  

Source:  Harvard University

How to increase your activity level, Step one

Informed May 11, 2020 at 05:39 AM

If you are looking to increase your activity level, here are steps you can take.
Step one:
The easiest place to begin is to take a hard look at your current level of physical activity. Start building activity into your day with simple choices:

1. taking the stairs instead of the elevator
2. gardening
3. housework
4. washing the car or something

These everyday chores will also help you increase your overall activity level and burn calories too. Although these changes may seem small, when you implement them each and every day, they add up.  

Source:  Harvard University

How to increase your activity level, Step two

Informed May 11, 2020 at 05:36 AM

How to increase your activity level, Step two:

you are already somewhat active or have an occupation that requires movement, design a regular exercise plan that suits your lifestyle. To be successful, an exercise program has to be sustainable — something you can stick with over the long term. You can begin by looking at the time slots you have in your day for exercise (before work, at lunchtime, in the evening) and then evaluate the resources you have at your disposal. For example, does your workplace or senior center have a fitness facility? If not, do you have access to an enclosed, weather-safe place to walk? Be creative with your options; don’t assume the only option for exercise is an expensive gym membership.

Your goal is to create a plan that enables you to get at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity per week — the target set by the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The best activity for you may be something as simple as walking. Try adding 30 minutes of walking five times per week to your schedule. In addition, the Physical Activity Guidelines recommend two strength training sessions per week. The combination of aerobic exercise and strength training seems to have the best overall benefit when it comes to reducing insulin resistance and lowering blood sugar levels. But beware of these cautions.  

Source:  Harvard University

How to increase your activity level, Warnings

Informed May 11, 2020 at 05:33 AM


with diabetic retinopathy (blood vessel abnormalities in the eye’s retina) should avoid intense resistance exercise such as weight lifting, which can cause a marked increase in blood pressure that might trigger bleeding within the eye. High-impact exercise such as boxing or diving should also be avoided.

People with neuropathy (nerve pain or loss of sensation), particularly those who have lost feeling in their feet, should avoid traumatic weight-bearing exercise, such as long-distance running or downhill skiing. Those activities could lead to stress fractures in the small bones of the foot or ankle, or pressure ulcers on the toes and feet. Low-impact or non-weight-bearing types of exercise, such as swimming, yoga, and bicycling, are safer choices. Also, be sure to choose well-fitting, protective, and comfortable footwear, especially during exercise.  

Source:  Harvard University

Recommendations for those who have diabetes

Informed May 11, 2020 at 05:28 AM

For people who have diabetes, the benefits of physical activity can’t be overstated.

1. increased physical activity and exercise help control weight
2. lower blood pressure
3. lower harmful LDL cholesterol and triglycerides
4. higher healthy HDL cholesterol
5. stronger muscles and bones
6. reduced anxiety
7. improved general well-being.

There are added benefits for people with diabetes: exercise lowers blood glucose levels independent of insulin and also boosts your body’s sensitivity to insulin, countering insulin resistance. In addition, strength training builds muscles — and muscle tissue burns more glucose than other types of tissue.  

Source:  Harvard University

Ethiopia Open Education Platform

Informed May 10, 2020 at 11:58 AM

The NADRE Platform for MOOCs is both a Content and a Learning Management System, based on the open courseware development platform OPEN edX, delivered in the context of the National Academic Digital Repository of Ethiopia (NADRE) project  

Source:  Ministry of Science and Higher Education

The National Academic Digital Library of Ethiopia (NADLE)

Informed May 10, 2020 at 11:47 AM

The National Academic Digital Library of Ethiopia (NADLE) is an academic digital repository containing textbooks, articles, audio books, lectures, simulations, fiction and all other kinds of learning media. The NADLE provides free of cost access to many academic books in English and the Other languages.  

Source:  he National Academic Digital Library of Ethiopia

Planting trees is no a solution for climate change, says ecologist

Informed May 09, 2020 at 05:50 AM

Campaigns to plant 1 trillion trees must be undertaken with care and a commitment to long-term management.
Restoration ecologist Karen Holl has a simple message for anyone who thinks planting 1 trillion trees will reverse the damage of climate change.  

Source:  University of California - Santa Cruz

5 things that can scuttle good sex, recommendation for married couples only

Informed May 08, 2020 at 07:22 AM

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"The brain is the body's most important sex organ." This well-known phrase bears more than a little truth. Functional sex organs, appropriate hormone levels, and the ability to become sexually aroused alone don't guarantee good sex. Other factors — brain factors — can get in the way.

1. Relationship issues:-
Tension and emotional distance can undermine a couple's sex life. Conflicts having nothing to do with sex, like finances or child-raising issues, can be at the root of a sexual problem. It works the other way, too: a sexual issue can strain a couple's ability to get along.

2. Performance anxiety:-
A person may become so worried about sexual performance that sex is no longer enjoyable — or even possible. Performance anxiety becomes more common for both men and women as they move into their 50s.

3. Body image and self-esteem:-
There are plenty of things that can make a person feel less than sexy. Gravity is not kind to the body as it ages. Childbirth, a poor diet, weight gain, or thinning hair can also leave a person feeling less than desirable. Such feelings can get in the way of a sense of closeness or inspired lovemaking — and can inhibit a person from initiating or responding to sexual advances.

4. Expectations and past experiences:-
Your sexuality is a natural drive that's with you from birth, but your family, culture, religious background, the media, and your peers shape your attitudes toward sex. For some people, this history supports a healthy enjoyment of sex. For others, it complicates sexual relationships.

5. Stress and lifestyle changes:-
Stress and fatigue can quickly sap your sex drive. Stress can hit from any direction — challenging children, financial worries, aging parents, health concerns, career woes, and more. An overload of competing demands may keep you and your partner from nurturing many aspects of your relationship, sexual and otherwise.  

Source:  Harvard University

Blueprint to protect the mental health of frontline medical workers

Informed May 08, 2020 at 05:46 AM

University of Queensland researchers have developed a set of recommendations to manage the mental health of frontline medical workers during viral outbreaks, such as COVID-19.  

Source:  University of Queensland

COVID Symptom Tracker app

Informed May 07, 2020 at 09:19 AM

Please find COVID Symptom Tracker app here  

Source:  Massachusetts General Hospital

Fight Back Against COPD! Powerful new tools offer greater strength, stamina, and quality of life

Informed May 06, 2020 at 06:40 AM

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD - (serious breathing problem)— is one of the most serious and widespread medical conditions of our time.
It drains energy. It makes walking and climbing stairs difficult. It shrinks your world and robs you of the activities you enjoy.

But the GOOD NEWS is that it is preventable...and treatable. In recent years, researchers have learned an enormous amount about this crippling disease — opening the door to effective treatments that can improve your quality of life.  

Source:  Harvard University

5 ways to keep your feet healthy for better mobility

Informed May 01, 2020 at 06:53 AM

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Feet are easy to neglect - but it pays dividends when you take care of them. As we age, chronic foot pain and common foot problems (such as tendinitis, bunions, and arthritis) can increasingly limit mobility.

But taking a few simple steps to care for your feet can help you preserve - or even improve - your mobility. Here are five of our favorites.

1. Maintain a healthy weight:- Being overweight affects your feet by putting greater force on them with each step. It can also increase your risk of having a condition like arthritis in the feet and worsen pain from other foot problems. Being overweight can also harm foot health by putting you at higher risk for diabetes or poor blood circulation, which can lead to foot pain and loss of sensation in the feet.
2. Wear good shoes:- Shoe fashions come and go, but a lifetime of wearing comfortable shoes is one of the best preventive measures you can take to ensure your mobility. Wearing tight shoes or high heels now and then for a night out won't cause lasting damage. But when you know you'll be on your feet most of the day, choose supportive, comfortable shoes. Invest in well-fitting athletic shoes for running, aerobics, and other high-impact activities.
3. Moisturize your feet:- The skin of the feet tends to get thinner and drier with age; callused feet can crack and bleed, causing pain. To keep the skin soft, rub a thick moisturizing lotion into your feet after showers or baths as needed (but avoid the spaces in between the toes, where too much moisture can lead to infections).
4. Practice good foot hygiene:- Wash and dry your feet thoroughly when you shower or bathe. Cut toenails straight across to avoid ingrown nails. Use a pumice stone or foot file to gently remove calluses. If you wear nail polish on your toes, keep the nails healthy by letting them "breathe" for a couple of days after you remove it and before adding more.
5. Stretch your feet:- People don't usually think about stretching the tops and bottoms of their feet, but stretches can help you treat - and prevent - foot pain. Stretches for the Achilles' tendon are also important.  

Source:  Harvard University

7 Amazing Reasons to Start Doing Tai Chi Today!

Informed Apr 29, 2020 at 03:27 AM

The ancient Chinese practice of tai chi is becoming widely recognized as one of the most powerful ways to improve both physical and mental health. Try Introduction to Tai Chi today and help your health with:

1. Better Balance: Studies show older adults who did tai chi one to three times a week were 43% less likely to fall, and they cut their risk of injury in half!
2. Pain Relief: Tai chi offers significant relief from back, neck, arthritis, and fibromyalgia pain
3. A Sharper Mind: It’s shown to help reduce age-related cognitive decline ... and even slow dementia!
4. Better Heart Health: Tai chi may reduce your chances of developing heart disease &mash; even if you have risk factors
5. Improved Mood: In 82% of studies, tai chi greatly improved mood and lowered anxiety. It’s also an effective treatment for depression
6. Less Stress: Learn the secret to taking deep, calming breaths and reduce anxiety and depression
7. And so much more!  

Source:  Harvard University

Want to take years off your skin?

Informed Apr 29, 2020 at 03:17 AM

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Now you can take care of your skin as never before. This Special Health Report shares the exciting advances that are bringing a fresh look to skin care.

You’ll see how you can enjoy skin that is with fewer visible lines and with a healthy glow and a more youthful resiliency and softness.

Discover the advances that are changing the face of skin care
Learn the secrets to more beautiful skin at any age
Find out how — starting right now — you can have softer, healthier, and younger-looking skin.

Get the facts you need for the skin you want. Order your copy of Skin Care and Repair today!  

Source:  Harvard University

Covid-19 online courses

Informed Apr 19, 2020 at 02:55 PM

Get certificate on Covid19-courses
find the online course by clicking the below link:  

Control your blood pressure and cut your risk of heart attack and stroke in half.

Informed Apr 19, 2020 at 01:46 PM

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Discover the steps and secrets to lower blood pressure!
latest guidelines have made the importance of maintaining lower blood pressure numbers abundantly clear. Indeed, now nearly half of American adults are considered to have high blood pressure, with double the risk of heart attacks and strokes as well as increased risk of kidney failure, loss of eyesight, and even Alzheimer’s. You don’t have to be in that group. You can effectively and successfully lower your blood pressure.

This interactive online course will show you how. You’ll discover the strategies, the medications, and simple lifestyle changes that will make a truly significant and measurable difference.

Please find the link to the online course by Harvard unioversity:  

Source:  Harvard University

4 ways to get better sleep

Informed Apr 19, 2020 at 01:28 PM

If you are having trouble sleeping or sleeping well, the following four techniques may help you sleep better.

1. Sleep restriction:- Fight the tendency to spend a lot of time in bed with the hope of falling asleep. In reality, less time in bed helps you to sleep better and make the bedroom a welcome sight instead of a torture chamber.

2. Reconditioning:- A few simple steps can help people with insomnia to associate the bedroom with sleep instead of sleeplessness and frustration. For example, use the bed only for sleeping or sex and go to bed only when you're sleepy. If you're unable to sleep, move to another room and do something relaxing. Stay up until you are sleepy, and then return to bed. If sleep does not follow quickly, repeat.

3. Relaxation techniques:- A racing or worried mind is the enemy of sleep. Sometimes physical tension is to blame. Techniques to quiet a racing mind - such as meditation, breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, and biofeedback - can help you sleep better.

4. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT):- CBT for insomnia aims to change the negative thoughts and beliefs about sleep into positive ones. People with insomnia tend to become preoccupied with sleep and apprehensive about the consequences of poor sleep. This worry makes relaxing and falling asleep nearly impossible. The basic tenets of this therapy include setting realistic goals and learning to let go of inaccurate thoughts that can interfere with sleep.  

Source:  Harvard University

Crushing coronavirus means ‘breaking the habits of a lifetime.’ Behavior scientists have some tips

Informed Apr 19, 2020 at 12:22 PM

With no vaccine or medication to cope with the novel coronavirus, people around the world have sought—or been ordered to seek—protection by changing the way they act in ways large and small, from their washing hands more frequently to avoiding almost all physical contact. Now, government and industry leaders are turning to behavioral scientists for advice on how to persuade their citizens and workers to abide by such dramatic changes.  

Source:  American Association for the Advancement of Science

Six tips for safe stretches

Informed Apr 17, 2020 at 06:54 AM

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Stretching can help in numerous ways. It can often relieve back pain, stiff necks, and sore knees when tight muscles are to blame. It can counteract too much sitting whether you're doing it for work or a pleasurable activity.

1. Warm-up first:- Much like taffy, muscles stretch more easily when warm. It can be as simple as marching in place with arms swinging for five minutes or dancing to a few songs. Moist heat packs or a warm shower are effective first steps, too.
2. Feel no pain:- Stretch only to the point of mild tension, never to the point of pain. If a stretch hurts, stop immediately! Reset your position carefully, then try again. With time and practice, your flexibility will improve.
3. Pay attention to posture and good form:- Posture counts whether you're sitting, standing, or moving. Good form translates to better gains in flexibility and less likelihood of injury when stretching tight muscles.
4. Focus on the muscle being stretched:- You'll notice that one side of your body often is tighter than the other. Work on balancing this over time.
5. Breathe:- Breathe comfortably while stretching, or use yoga breathing. Whatever you do, don't hold your breath while you are holding a stretch.
6. Practice often:- You'll make the best gains if you stretch frequently-daily, or on as many days of the week as possible. At the very least, aim to do stretches two or three times a week.
Please find below Stretch Away Arthritis, Back, and Knee Pain and Improve Your Balance online publishing web link:  

Source:  Harvard University

Register Now! Special COVID-19 virtual lecture by Kristian Andersen

Informed Apr 14, 2020 at 05:54 AM

Register Now! Special COVID-19 virtual lecture by Kristian Andersen.
virtual lecture on the topic of Outsmarting Emerging Pathogens in an Interconnected World will be held on Apr 15, 2020, at 04:00 PM.
Register now.  

Source:  Scripps Research

Ending Global Poverty

Informed Apr 14, 2020 at 05:11 AM

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Learn about four female ministers in charge of international development who collaborated to improve policies in their own countries and across the globe.
Book recommendation to buy and read.  

Source:  Oxford University

Find the weight-loss plan that works for you

Informed Apr 12, 2020 at 04:37 AM

You’ve tried different diets and have even been exercising regularly — but those extra pounds won’t budge. Don’t give up. It may be that you haven’t yet found the weight-loss strategies that work for you.
“Everything works for some people, but no treatment is equally effective for everyone,”
“No method is fundamentally better than any other. The key is finding out which therapy is best for you, and that takes trial and error.”
There are many ways to approach weight loss. Of course, diet and exercise should be first. There is no shortage of diets to try: low-calorie, low-carb, fill-up-first-with-bulky-foods, and weight-loss plans with prepackaged foods.

Beyond diet, exercise helps burn calories. Getting more sleep and lowering your stress level with biofeedback or meditation may be helpful. If you are easily discouraged, studies suggest that a support program may increase your chance of success. Options include phone, Internet, or group support, and in-person coaching. For some people, hunger-suppressing medications or weight-loss surgery can help them lose a significant amount of weight and keep it off.  

Source:  Harvard University

3 diet changes to help lower cholesterol levels

Informed Apr 03, 2020 at 03:44 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
If you have high cholesterol (a total cholesterol level of 240 milligrams per deciliter of blood or above), taking steps to lower it can greatly reduce your chances of having a heart attack. For every 10% drop in your cholesterol level, your heart attack risk falls by 20% to 30%.
There are several steps you can take to lower your cholesterol level, like losing weight if needed, being more active, and choosing healthy foods. Here are three simple steps toward a healthier, cholesterol-lowering diet:

1. Choose healthy fats:
Avoid saturated fats, which increase unhealthy LDL levels, and steer clear of trans fats, which both raise LDL and lower protective HDL. Instead, substitute healthier unsaturated fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.

2. Go with whole grains:
Whole-grain breads, pastas, and cereals help prevent a blood sugar roller coaster and make you feel full longer. Many of these foods contain fiber, which can help lower LDL levels.

3. Make other healthy choices:
Eat more fruits and vegetables. Ideally, substitute these for processed foods and sweets. Choose fat-free milk instead of whole milk. Opt for low-fat yogurt and pick brands that are not loaded with sugar.  

Source:  Harvard University

Get to know about stroke, How a Stroke Affects You and much more

Informed Apr 02, 2020 at 03:34 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
Stroke is a feared medical problem because it can be debilitating or even deadly. Your best defense is to make sure you know how to prevent a stroke and how to recognize one so you can get treatment right away.
stroke is a disease that affects the arteries leading to and within the brain. 80 percent of strokes are preventable.
Click the below link to get a pdf file about stroke, how stroke affects you and much more.  

Source:  American Stroke Association

Discover the best ways to keep your memory sharp as you age with this interactive online experience you can enjoy anytime, anywhere

Informed Apr 02, 2020 at 02:54 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
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In Cognitive Fitness, the online course from the experts at Harvard University, you'll get a 6-step, easy-to-follow plan that helps you boost your brain health, and maintain and improve your memory as you age.

Cognitive Fitness includes a well-researched, 6-step plan for improving brain health that brings you:

1. Two brain-boosting diets, including sample menus and a list of foods to eat more of and those to avoid
2. Exercises that help improve cognitive fitness
3. Tips for improving sleep
4. Techniques for managing stress
5. Ways to stay socially active
6. Activities to challenge your brain  

Source:  Harvard University

13 ways to add fruits and vegetables to your diet

Informed Mar 31, 2020 at 05:08 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
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Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables is a cornerstone of good health. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help you:

1. Keep blood pressure under control.
2. Reach and maintain healthy cholesterol levels.
3. Keep your arteries flexible.
4. Protect your bones.
5. Keep the eyes, brain, digestive system, and just about every other part of the body healthy.

Preparation time, unfamiliarity, and old habits are other obstacles to eating more fruits and vegetables. Here are a baker's dozen of suggestions for tipping aside these barriers and enjoying delicious and nutritious foods.

1. Know your needs:-
The guidelines recommend a minimum of 2 cups of fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables a day. More is better. To calculate your fruit and vegetable needs, go to

2. Set a goal:-
If fruits and vegetables are minor items in your menu, start by eating one extra fruit or vegetable a day. When you're used to that, add another, and keep going.

3. Be sneaky:-
Adding finely grated carrots or zucchini to pasta sauce, meatloaf, chili, or a stew is one way to get an extra serving of vegetables. Cookbooks like Deceptively Delicious or The Sneaky Chef offer ways to slip vegetables and fruits into all sorts of recipes.

4. Try something new:-
It's easy to get tired of apples, bananas, and grapes. Try a kiwi, mango, fresh pineapple, or some of the more exotic choices now found in many grocery stores.

5. Blend in:-
A fruit smoothie is a delicious way to start the day or tide you over until dinner.

Simple fruit smoothie:
This is a great way to use bananas that are beginning to get too ripe. (You can always cut ripe bananas into thick slices, freeze in a plastic bag, and thaw when you're ready to make another smoothie.)

Makes 1 serving
¾ cup plain yogurt
½ cup berries (fresh or frozen strawberries, blueberries, or other berry of your choice)
½ ripe banana
½ cup pineapple juice

Optional: 1 tablespoon ground flaxseed (for healthy omega-3 fats)

Put all ingredients in a blender or food processor and blend to combine. You can branch out by adding a dash of ground cinnamon, a splash of vanilla, some mint, or other flavoring.

6. Be a big dipper:-
Try dipping vegetables into hummus or another bean spread, some spiced yogurt, or a bit of ranch dressing. Or slather some peanut butter on a banana or slices of apple.

7. Spread it on:-
Try mashed avocado as a dip with diced tomatoes and onions. Puréed cooked spinach is also a delicious dip. Either can also be used as a sandwich spread.

8. Start off right:-
Ditch your morning donut for an omelet with onions, peppers, and mushrooms. Top it with some salsa to wake up your palate. Or boost your morning cereal or oatmeal with a handful of strawberries, blueberries, or dried fruit.

9. Drink up:-
Having a 6-ounce glass of low-sodium vegetable juice instead of a soda gives you a full serving of vegetables and spares you 10 teaspoons or more of sugar.

10. Give them the heat treatment:-
Cut up onions, carrots, zucchini, asparagus, turnips — whatever you have on hand — coat with olive oil, add a dash of balsamic vinegar, and roast at 350° until done. Grilling is another way to bring out the taste of vegetables. Use roasted or grilled veggies as a side dish, put them on sandwiches, or add them to salads.

11. Let someone else do the work:-
Food companies and grocers offer an ever-expanding selection of prepared produce, from ready-made salads to frozen stir-fry mixes and take-along sliced apples and dip.

12. Improve on nature:-
Jazz up vegetables with spices, chopped nuts, balsamic vinegar, olive oil, or a specialty oil like walnut or sesame oil. Even a dash of grated Parmesan cheese can liven up the blandest green beans.

13. Get help from Willy Wonka:-
Try any type of fruit dipped in dark chocolate: what could be a tastier two-fer? In addition to a delectable dessert, you get plenty of heart-healthy antioxidants, some fiber, and a host of vitamins, minerals, and other phytonutrients.  

Source:  Harvard University

Online calorie reference

Informed Mar 31, 2020 at 04:47 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
Estimating the number of calories in foods with an online calorie counter website.  

Source:  Harvard University

Lower your cholesterol effectively, safely, and permanently

Informed Mar 30, 2020 at 04:53 AM

Informer:  አስኳላ
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In a new online course, Harvard university takes the mystery out of managing cholesterol. You’ll learn the best ways to successfully lower bad cholesterol, decrease elevated triglycerides, and achieve the strengthened and enduring heart health you want!
There’s no overestimating the importance of controlling your cholesterol. The CDC says it as directly as possible...”People with high cholesterol have about twice the risk of heart disease as people with lower levels.”

The fact is more than 40% of all Americans have higher-than-normal cholesterol levels. You can take steps not to be one of them.

Perhaps no vital health topic is as confounding as cholesterol. How can there be “good” and “bad” cholesterol? Just what is cholesterol anyway? And why the concern about elevated triglycerides?

Is there more to it than just numbers? Who should be tested? When? How often? Which tests are most revealing? Which tests are most accurate? And why do the guidelines keep changing?

And most important...what can you do to attain and maintain the cholesterol levels that are most compatible and valuable to improved cardiovascular fitness, greater security from a heart attack and stroke, and added and lasting protection from heart disease?

Managing Your Cholesterol is an empowering online course that will add to your understanding of cholesterol’s impact on vascular health and introduce you to the strategies and tools you can use to control cholesterol with safety, confidence, and success.  

Source:  Harvard University

Statistics about Ethiopia

Informed Mar 13, 2020 at 12:46 PM

Informer:  askwala
Total population (2016): 102,403,000
national income per capita (PPP international $, 2013): 1,350
Life expectancy at birth male/female (years, 2016): 64/67
Probability of dying under five (per 1 000 live births, 2018): 55
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years male/female (per 1 000 population, 2016): 246/194
Total expenditure on health per capita (Intl $, 2014): 73
Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2014): 4.9  

Source:  world health organization

የነገውን የከፊል የጸሃይ ግርዶሽን ለመከታተል የሚረዳ ካሜራ በቤትዎ ይስሩ

Informed Dec 25, 2019 at 02:44 PM

Informer:  askwala
የነገውን የከፊል የጸሃይ ግርዶሽን ለመከታተል ይህን ቀላል ፒን ሆል ካሜራ በመኖሪያ ቤታችን በሚገኙ ቁሳቁሶች መስራት ይቻላል:: rnለበለጠ መረጃ ከታች ያለውን የዩቱብ ሊንክ ይጫኑrnIn order to view the upcoming partial solar eclipse, we can construct a pin hole camera with materials that are easily available at home  

Source:  Ethiopian Space Science Society

Body mass index

Informed Nov 18, 2019 at 10:22 AM

Informer:  space
Get to know about your body mass index and weight status  

Source:  askwala

Call for Thematic Research Proposals

Informed Jun 11, 2019 at 03:29 PM

Informer:  space
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The Office of the Director for Research hereby announces the 7th round call for thematic research proposals for possible funding.

The thematic research proposal:

1. should be in line with the new research priority areas of the university
2. need to address a national problem with an overarching goal;
3. should be multi-disciplinary, extending across more than one college / department /institute/school;
4. should incorporate at least three sub-theme/research components addressing different aspects of a common problem;
5. should involve a minimum of two academic staff in one sub-theme;
6. should extend from knowledge to usable technology creation and have components that address the dissemination of outcomes of the research,
7. should be problem solving, inclusive of stakeholders, industry and end-users and;
8. should incorporate PhD and/or Master’s thesis topics.
Please note that the proposals will be reviewed by panel of experts and those proposals which attain grades above cut of point will be notified.

The last date for submission is July 30, 2019. Please submit your application package using AAU CONVERIS at research portal. For any technical assistance please communicate Mr. Biniyam Amsalu (ICT Business Application Development and Administration Team Leader) at or +251-912077039.  

Source:  Addis Ababa University

What is World Wide Web (WWW)?

Informed May 22, 2019 at 09:55 AM

Informer:  Wegen
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TheWorld Wide Web(WWWor theWeb) is often confused with the Internet.
the precursor to the Internet was originally created during the Cold War as
a way to link sections of the country together during an emergency, the actual term
“Internet” wasn’t used until the early 1970s. At that time, academic research institutions
developed the Internet to create better communication and to share resources. Later,
universities and research facilities throughout the world began using the Internet. In the
early 1990s, Tim Berners-Lee created a set of technologies that allowed information
on the Internet to be linked together through the use oflinks, or connections, in
documents. The language component of these technologies is Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML). A good source of information on the history of the Internet is
The Web was mostly text based until Marc Andreessen created the first graphical
Web browser in 1993, called Mosaic. This paved the way for video, sound, and photos
on the Web.
As a large group of interconnected computers all over the world, the Internet comprises
not only the Web, but also things likenewsgroups(online bulletin boards) and e-mail.
Many people think of the Web as the graphical or illustrated part of the Internet.  

Source:  HTML a Beginners Guide

The Anatomy of a Web Site

Informed May 22, 2019 at 09:49 AM

Informer:  Wegen
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1. URLs
fancy word for “Web address” isuniform resource locator, also referenced by its acronym
URL(pronounced either by the letters U-R-L or as a single word, “url,” which rhymes with
“girl”). If you haven’t heard a Web address referred to as a URL, you have probably seen one—
URLs start with http://, and they usually end with .com, .org, .edu, or .net. (Other possibilities
include .tv, .biz, and .info. For more information,
Every Web site has a URL. An example is The following
illustration shows another example of a URL, as it appears in a Netscape browser.
One part of a URL is thedomain name, which helps identify and locate computers on
the Internet. To avoid confusion, each domain name is unique. You can think of the domain
name as a label or a shortcut. Behind that shortcut is a series of numbers, called anIP Address,
which gives the specific address of where the site you are looking for is located on the Internet.
To draw an analogy, if the domain name is the word “Emergency” written next to the first aid
symbol on your speed dial, the IP Address is 9-1-1.
Businesses typically register domain names ending in a .com (which signifies a commercial
venture) that are similar to their business or product name. Domain registration is like renting
office space on the Internet. Once you register a domain name, you have the right to publish a
Web site under that name on the Internet for as long as you pay the rental fees.

2. Web Servers
Every Web site and Web page also needs a Web server. Quite simply, aWeb server
is a computer, running special software, which is always connected to the Internet.
When you type a URL into your Web browser or click a link in a Web page, you send a
request to the server that houses that information. It’s similar to the process that occurs when
you dial a phone number with your telephone. Your request “calls” the computer that contains
all the files necessary to show you the Web page you requested. The computer then “serves”
and displays all the pages to you, usually in your Web browser.

3. Sites
A URL is commonly associated with a Web site. You have seen plenty of examples on
billboards and in television the URL for Yahoo!’s Web
site; the URL for CBS’s Web site.
Most commonly, these sites are located in directories or folders on the server, just as you
might have your C: drive on your personal computer. Then, within this main site, there may be
several folders, which house other sections of the Web site.
For example, Chop Point is a summer camp and K-12 school in Maine. It has several main
sections of its Web site, but the most notable are “camp” and “school.” If you look at the URL
for Chop Point’s camp section, you can see the name of the folder after the site name: If you were to look at the main page for the school, the URL changes to:

4. Pages
When you visit a Web site, you look at pages on the site that contain all the text, graphics,
sound, and video content. Even though a Web page is not the same size or format as a printed
page, the word “page” is used to help us differentiate between pages, folders, and sites. Just
as many pages and chapters can be within a single book, many pages and folders (or sections)
can also be within a Web site.
Most Web servers are set up to look automatically for a page called “index” as the main
page in any folder. So, if you were to type in the URL used in the previous example, the server
would look for the index page in the “camp” folder.
If you want to look for a different page in the camp folder, you could type the name of
that page after the site and folder names, keeping in mind that HTML pages usually end with

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Source:  HTML a Beginners Guide

Building an Easy-to-Maintain Web Site with Free Tools

Informed May 11, 2019 at 05:19 PM

Informer:  Wegen
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need to set up a small web site and are willing to sacrifice some customization options in favor of saving money and getting it online quickly.

Employ a combination of free or inexpensive resources available on the Web to build a low-cost site that's easy to maintain. The ingredients for this Recipe are:

1. A domain parked at a registrar that allows you to forward requests for the domain to another URL

2. A small amount of free hosting space provided by your internet service provider, school, employer, or other reliable web server operator

3. One or more blogs hosted by Blogger (or another free blogging service)

4. A free Flickr account for storing and sharing images you want to display on your site

5. A free account for managing links on the site, including its navigation

6. A Google-based site search form

web sites start with a domain name. Expect to pay $5 to $10 for a one-year registration, although you may find a cheaper deal for a domain in one of the newer top-level domains (such as .info or .biz) if you shop around. For this Recipe, I registered the domain at ( When choosing a registrar for the site, make sure you can "park" the domain on their DNS servers for free (or a nominal fee) and forward requests for the domain to another URL. In addition to free parking and forwarding, GoDaddy also lets registrants "mask" the forwarded domain, which means that the browser location window will always display the domain name (, even though the pages themselves will be served from another URL.

Next, you'll need to find a small amount of hosting space for the site. I found mine through my internet service providerSBCwho, through a partnership with Yahoo!, gives its customers a free GeoCities account with 15MB of disk space. The GeoCities control panel also has a web-based file manager for uploading and editing web pages stored on the account. In my GoDaddy control panel, I set to forward to Because I also instructed GoDaddy to mask the domain, visitors to the site will never see the GeoCities address.
A free Blogger account solves the content management problem. With its user-friendly web-based writing and editing interface, Blogger's blogging tools circumvent the need for your less computer-savvy site contributors to set up an FTP client and understand the process of uploading files to the web server. Blogger also offers a variety of design templates for displaying your blog at an address on their server (i.e., But for this site, you will self-syndicate an RSS feed from your blog and display it on a page that you upload just once to your free hosting space.
Self-syndication will be the key to adding navigation and images to the site, and free accounts with and Flickr will provide the tools for doing so. As darlings of the Web 2.0 movement, Flickr and are leading the way in opening the web to new ways of managing images and links on the web. The tagging features of both servicesdubbed folksonomy for their grass-roots inversion of traditional top-down categorization, or taxonomy, of online resourcesenable novel and inspiring ways of communal publishing and sharing with the web.

At the most basic level, is an online bookmark storage service. With it, you can ditch the bookmark list that your browser saves on your PC's hard drive and have access to your favorite sites from any browser on any computer that you use. You also can define your own system for categorizing your bookmarks with one or more tags that you assign to each bookmark you add to your account. Flickr works in a similar way, but with images. A free Flickr account provides 20 MB of image-upload storage each month, as well as tools for tagging individual images, generating code for displaying them on another web site, uploading images automatically from your cell phone's camera, and posting the images with a short description to a blog hosted by another service (including Blogger).

Best of all for your fast, cheap, and under control site, both and Flickr generate RSS feeds for each tag that you define. So in my account I defined two tags for the links I want to display on the site: "sitenav" for the internal links and "sitelinks" for other web sites that I want to link to from Then, I plugged in the self-syndication code for the two tag feeds into the pages where I want those links to appear: "sitenav" in the sidebar of every page and "sitelinks" on my Links page.


Source:  Web site cookbook

Meeting Some Differences between British and American English

Informed May 04, 2019 at 04:11 PM

Informer:  Wegen
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Many words differ between American and British English. George Bernard
Shaw said: ‘England and America are two countries divided by a common language.’ He was partially correct, particularly with reference to some vocabulary and some different uses of tenses. For example, British English often
uses the present perfect tense to describe a recently completed action, while
American English uses the past simple. Imagine that you’ve just finished breakfast. A British English speaker would ask ‘Have you finished breakfast yet?’. An American English speaker, on the other hand, is more likely to ask
‘Did you finish breakfast yet?’.  

Source:  Learning English as foreign language

Writing Strings That Include Quotes or Special Characters in MySQL

Informed May 04, 2019 at 03:28 PM

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want to write a quoted string, but it contains quote characters or other special characters, and MySQL rejects it.

4.2.2 Solution
Learn the syntax rules that govern the interpretation of strings in queries.

4.2.3 Discussion
To write a string in a SQL statement, surround it with quote characters:

mysql> SELECT 'hello, world';
| hello, world |
| hello, world |
But sometimes you need to write a string that includes a quote character, and if you just put the quote into the string as is, a syntax error results:

mysql> SELECT 'I'm asleep';
ERROR 1064 at line 1: You have an error in your SQL syntax near 'asleep''
at line 1
You can deal with this several ways:

MySQL, unlike some SQL engines, allows you to quote strings with either single quotes or double quotes, so you can enclose a string containing single quotes within double quotes:

mysql> SELECT "I'm asleep";
| I'm asleep |
| I'm asleep |
This works in reverse, too; a string containing double quotes can be enclosed within single quotes:

mysql> SELECT 'He said, "Boo!"';
| He said, "Boo!" |
| He said, "Boo!" |
To include a quote character within a string that is quoted by the same kind of quote, either double the quote or precede it with a backslash. When MySQL reads the query string, it will strip off the extra quote or the backslash:

mysql> SELECT 'I''m asleep', 'I'm wide awake';
| I'm asleep | I'm wide awake |
| I'm asleep | I'm wide awake |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> SELECT "He said, ""Boo!""", "And I said, "Yikes!"";
| He said, "Boo!" | And I said, "Yikes!" |
| He said, "Boo!" | And I said, "Yikes!" |
A backslash turns off the special meaning of the following character. (It causes a temporary escape from normal string processing rules, so sequences such as ' and " are called escape sequences.) This means that backslash itself is special, so to write a literal backslash within a string, you must double it:

mysql> SELECT 'Install MySQL in C:mysql on Windows';
| Install MySQL in C:mysql on Windows |
| Install MySQL in C:mysql on Windows |
Other escape sequences recognized by MySQL are b (backspace), n (newline, also called linefeed), r (carriage return), t (tab), and 0 (ASCII NUL).  

Source:  O'Reilly MySQL cookbook

The Meaning of localhost in MySQL

Informed May 04, 2019 at 03:16 PM

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One of the parameters you specify when connecting to a MySQL server is the host where the server is running. Most programs treat the hostname localhost and the IP address as synonymous. Under Unix, MySQL programs behave differently; by convention, they treat the hostname localhost specially and attempt to connect to the server using a Unix domain socket file. To force a TCP/IP connection to the local host, use the IP address rather than the hostname localhost. (Under Windows, localhost and are treated the same, because Windows doesn't have Unix domain sockets.)

The default port is 3306 for TCP/IP connections. The pathname for the Unix domain socket varies, although it's often /tmp/mysql.sock. The recipes indicate how to specify the socket file pathname or TCP/IP port number explicitly if you don't want to use the default.  

Source:  O'Reilly MySQL cookbook

Using mysql as a Calculator

Informed May 04, 2019 at 03:07 PM

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need a quick way to evaluate an expression.

mysql as a calculator. MySQL doesn't require every SELECT statement to refer to a table, so you can select the results of arbitrary expressions.

SELECT statements typically refer to some table or tables from which you're retrieving rows. However, in MySQL, SELECT need not reference any table at all, which means that you can use the mysql program as a calculator for evaluating an expression:

mysql> SELECT (17 + 23) / SQRT(64);
| (17 + 23) / SQRT(64) |
| 5.00000000 |
This is also useful for checking how a comparison works. For example, to determine whether or not string comparisons are case sensitive, try the following query:

mysql> SELECT 'ABC' = 'abc';
| 'ABC' = 'abc' |
| 1 |
The result of this comparison is 1 (meaning "true"; in general, nonzero values are true). This tells you that string comparisons are not case sensitive by default. Expressions that evaluate to false return zero:

mysql> SELECT 'ABC' = 'abcd';
| 'ABC' = 'abcd' |
| 0 |
If the value of an expression cannot be determined, the result is NULL:

mysql> SELECT 1/0;
| 1/0 |
| NULL |
SQL variables may be used to store the results of intermediate calculations. The following statements use variables this way to compute the total cost of a hotel bill:

mysql> SET @daily_room_charge = 100.00;
mysql> SET @num_of_nights = 3;
mysql> SET @tax_percent = 8;
mysql> SET @total_room_charge = @daily_room_charge * @num_of_nights;
mysql> SET @tax = (@total_room_charge * @tax_percent) / 100;
mysql> SET @total = @total_room_charge + @tax;
mysql> SELECT @total;
| @total |
| 324 |

Source:  O'Reilly MySQL cookbook

Turning Your Website Skills into Cash

Informed May 02, 2019 at 02:47 PM

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1. Becoming a Paid Website Designer

Putting Ads on Your Site
. Although a few doom-and-gloom types insist web advertising is dead, online ads are indeed alive and well and making people money. You may as well be one of them.
. If you want to attract more traffic to your site, choose a banner exchange network; if you have a reasonable amount of traffic, sign up with an ad network to start making money on your site right away.
. To get the most out of Google AdSense, place your ads in high-focus areas, avoid banners, and make your ad units resemble the rest of your page content.

3. Working With Affiliate Programs
. An affiliate program is a CPA-based advertising program where you partner with a selling site by setting up product links and receiving a percentage of each sale.
* cost-per-action (CPA) is where you get paid each time someone clicks an ad and performs some action, such as purchasing a product, filling in a form, registering with the site, and so on.
. Before signing up with an affiliate program, do some homework. Study commission rates and learn how commissions are generated, when you get paid, and what restrictions the program insists upon.
. Choose a program that fits in with the content of your site, encourage visitors to buy the products, and make your store an attractive place to shop.

4. Selling Stuff on Your Site  

Source:  The complete idiot's guide to creating a website

Common error codes

Informed May 02, 2019 at 02:03 PM

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Code Meaning
200 OK, the request has succeeded
401 Unauthorized, the request requires authorization
403 Forbidden, the request was refused
404 Not found
500 Internal server error  

Source:  O'Reilly website cookbook

Monitoring Web Server Activity

Informed May 02, 2019 at 01:55 PM

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want to see programs your web server is running and user requests for web pages.

Use command-line tools to get a real-time snapshot of web server activity:

1. tail
Returns the last part of a file, such as most recent connection entries from the web server logfile
2. grep
Searches for a pattern in a file, such as specific filenames or error codes from the web server logfile

3. ps
Reports on the status of web server processes


Almost any decent web hosting account will record connections to your web site in log files that you can view and process. A good hosting provider may even help you automate the task of purging the connection records or log rolling so the files do not consume your account's disk quota, and give you access to web site statistics software, such as Analog or Urchin, that will generate easy-to-read reports about activity on your web site.

If you're serious about your web site, then you should take advantage of the tools available to you and review web site traffic reports often to understand how visitors get to your site, what's popular, and what's working (or not working).

The access and error logs that provide the raw material for traffic reports are constantly updated. Traffic reports themselves, on the other hand, are usually generated less frequently daily, or even weekly, in some cases. A situation may arise when you can't wait for the next traffic report to be created. You need to get an up-to-the-minute picture of the who, what, and how many of your web site's current activity. Here are some command-line tools you can use to take your web site's pulse.

Using tail to track web site requests in real time:

First, you'll need to find your Apache access and error log files. They are usually saved in a separate logs directory and have names like access_log, access.log, or apache.access_log. The error log should be in the same directory with the access log, so once you've found the logs, Telnet into your web server and switch to the logfiles directory.

Now you can watch connections to your web site as they're handled by Apache with the Unix utility tail. Assuming your access log is named access_log, type this command at your Telnet prompt:

tail -f access_log
Your shell window should be filled with several lines, like this: - - [14/May/2005:12:49:26 -0500] "GET
/swgr/index.php HTTP/1.1" 200 29070
"" "Mozilla/4.0
(compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)" - - [14/May/2005:12:49:30 -0500] "GET
/case_studies/cs01.html HTTP/1.0" 200 19604 "-" "Mozilla/4.0
(compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows NT; .NET CLR 1.1.4322)" - - [14/May/2005:12:49:33 -0500] "GET
/clients/index.html HTTP/1.1" 301 255 "-" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible;
MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1)"

Each line indicates the IP number, file requested, and status of each unique connection, or hit, to your web site. The -f flag on the command tells tail to show the last 10 lines in the access log, and to echo new lines to the shell window as they are appended to the file. See for yourself: open a browser window and, with your shell window still visible, hit a page on your web site. Your request should be duly noted by tail.  

Source:  O'Reilly website cookbook

Managing and Protecting a Domain Name

Informed Apr 30, 2019 at 05:13 PM

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need to protect the investment you made in a domain name for your web site.

Learn how the domain registration system works and keep your domain from being neglected or stolen by:

1. Knowing the expiration date

2. Keeping contact information up to date

3. Enabling domain security features

4. Choosing a strong domain management password

5. Registering your domain name as a trademark

6. Reading every email your registrar sends to you carefully

7. Consolidating multiple domains

8. Registering domain name variants

9. Using a domain-name monitoring service

10. Planning ahead if you move your domain to another host

11. Setting up a third-party, backup DNS service

Here are some important techniques for domain management that can prevent the inadvertent loss of your domain name:

1. Keep track of the expiration date.
Put the date on your calendar and keep a print-out of your whois record listing the administrative, billing, technical contacts, and expiration date in your files. Use the buddy system: make sure at least one other person with an interest in protecting the domain knows the expiration date and whois record information. Choose a registration term that won't exceed the institutional memory of the domain name owners. Although many registrars offer domain-name periods of up to 10 years, I prefer to keep mine for two or three years. That way, I get a chance every so often to review the value of the domain and even choose a new registrar if I want and I was never very good at that "Where will you be in five years?" interview question either.

2. Make sure the contact information is up to date.

The whois listing should have your correct contact data and list the proper owner: either the administrative contact, billing contact, or both. Make sure that you give your registrar, as well as your hosting company, an email address that's not in case there are problems with your domain name or account that make your email inoperable.

3. Enable any and all security features that your registrar offers.

A new ICANN domain transfer policy went into effect in the second half of 2004 that cut the time between a transfer request and its taking place to as little as five days. Basically, it allows anyone to request a domain transfer and the registrar to authorize the transfer if the current owner does not object. When this policy went into effect, one pithy online forum poster quipped that it spelled the end of week-long, internet-free vacations for web builders everywhere. You can prevent this form of hijacking by enabling a registration lock on your domain. Only unlocked domains can fall victim to the new quick transfer procedure, and only the owner of the domain can unlock it. Other security features vary among registrars, so familiarize yourself with those that are available on your domain and use them to protect it.

4. Choose a complex, hard-to-guess domain management password.

Don't email this password to anyone. Most good registrars offer web-based tools for managing your domain, so you'll need to create a secure password for accessing your account. Choose one that contains at least eight characters, including both upper and lowercase letters and one numeral. Don't base it on a real word, or any other bit of personal information that could be guessed by other means, such as your birthday, address, or phone number. If you need to give the password to a colleague or web designer, do not send it by email. Email can be intercepted and read by someone you can't trust en route to its intended recipient. When sharing sensitive passwords, deliver them in person, over the phone, or by fax, provided the receiving fax machine is in a trusted location. If you forget your password and your registrar emails it to you, log in and change the password immediately. Many registrars use a better method of resetting a forgotten password and requiring the domain owner to verify the change by logging in to their account. In either case, don't forget to make a note of your new password.

5. Register your domain name as a trademark, if possible.

If your web site address identifies a distinctive product or service that your business provides, then you might consider applying for trademark protection through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and other national trademark offices as necessary. Trademark protection can be a potential weapon on your side, should a dispute over your domain name arise. Bear in mind, however, that the most insidious domain hijackers may re-register your domain in a country that does not have the same high regard for U.S. trademarks as you do. In that case, prepare for a long, costly and usually fruitless effort to reclaim your stolen domain. For more resources on handling domain disputes, refer to the organizations listed under "See Also" at the end of this section.

6. Read every email your registrar sends you carefully and skeptically.

ICANN now requires registrars to contact domain name owners annually to verify contact information. Unscrupulous domain name speculators also will try to contact you with an email that appears to come from your registrar, in an attempt to trick you into providing information to them that they can use to hijack your domain. If you're unsure about any communication you get regarding your domain, call your registrar or report the fraudulent email to them immediately.

7. Consolidate multiple domains with one registrar and common expiration date.

It's tempting to shop around for the best deal when registering a new domain name, but before you know it you've got nearly as many domain management accounts with various registrars as you have domains under your control. The potential to lose one or more of your domains is an order of magnitude greater in this situation. Find the registrar with the best balance of features, prices and management tools that meet your needs, and stick with that registrar. Move domains at other registrars over to your preferred registrar when they're up for renewal. The little bit of extra money you will spend will be worth it for peace of mind.

8. Register as many variants of your domain as your budget will allow.

Often, the appearance of a hijacked domain can be more likely and more damaging than the hijacking itself. Take the case of a hypothetical nonprofit that registers only the dot-org (.org) variation of its name. A group with opposing views or just a penchant for mischief can set up a web site using the dot-com (.com) domain, leaving visitors who don't know any better confused about which site truly speaks for the organization.

9. Use a domain name monitoring service such as SnapNames or NameProtect.

SnapNames and NameProtect allow you to get alerts about potentially unwanted changes to domains you own and registration opportunities for domains you don't own but want to own.

10. Plan ahead if you move your domain to another host.

One of the services your web-hosting company will provide for you is DNS on its domain name servers. The DNS system functions as the address book of the world wide web, matching up the internet protocol (IP) numbers by which network traffic gets routed with alphabetical domain names that are easier for humans to remember. Just as previous residents at your home address may periodically get letters in your mailbox, the DNS system of web site addresses does not get updated instantaneously when you move your site and domain to a new web hosting service. That's because when you move your site, the domain name remains the same but the IP number associated with it changes, and propagation of the new IP number associated with your domain name to the thousands of DNS servers around the world takes anywhere from 24 to 72 hours.

When moving your site, follow these steps in order or risk your site disappearing from the web temporarily while information about your move spreads throughout the DNS system:

1. Set up your new hosting account.
2. Copy all your web site files to the new account when you have confirmation that the account is set up (usually within 24 hours).
3. Place a hidden tag of comment text that distinguishes it from the file on the old web server on your home page file saved on the new web server, like this:

4. Preview how the site will look by connecting to it with your web browser using the IP number of the new web server or a preview URL provided by the hosting company (e.g.,
5. Notify your domain registrar that you want to change the DNS server information for your domain to those maintained by your new hosting company when you're satisfied that the site on the new host's servers looks and behaves like the site on the current host's servers. (They should give the IP numbers and/or hostnames of their DNS servers when you sign up.)

Usually, you can update your DNS information via your registrar's web-based control panel for your account. At this point, the waiting period for the DNS change begins, so any changes you make to your site during this period must be made to files on both the old and new hosting account. I prefer to pull the trigger on DNS changes on a Friday, let the propagation occur over the weekend, and then check the site on Monday. Viewing source and finding the hidden tag confirms that the propagation is almost, if not entirely, done. By the middle of the week, you can cancel your old hosting account.

11. Consider setting up a third-party, backup DNS service.

This allows you to respond to web site outages quickly. If your hosting provider's DNS server goes down, then your web site will be down, too. For a nominal fee, you can set up a backup DNS listing through a company such as Ultra DNS to avoid this situation.  

Source:  O'Reilly website cookbook

Registering a Domain Name

Informed Apr 30, 2019 at 04:48 PM

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Registering a Domain Name
need to register a new domain name for your web site.

Choose the right domain name and registrar for your web site after weighing factors such as budget and goals for organizational identity.

Choosing a new domain name for a web site can often seem like shopping on the last day of an end-of-season sale at a popular clothing store. The best choices were long ago snapped up by the early shoppers. Like a picked-over pile of extra-small beige golf shirts, the remaining choices may not be a perfect fit for your planned web site.

Check the registrar of your choice to see if the domain name you want is already registered. Assuming for a minute that you will not be able to acquire your first choice (or second, or even third), here are some guidelines to consider when registering a brand new domain name:

Consider using your company or organization's short branding message or marketing slogan as your domain name. For example, if Wal-Mart's deep pockets and legions of lawyers were not able to wrest ownership of from a hypothetical cyber squatter, they might consider an acceptable alternative.

Try to come up with an action-oriented phrase or common aphorism that dovetails with the mission of your web site, and build your web site around that domain. For example, a site that promotes good health through good diet might register

Try adding your city, state, or other local identifier to your already-taken first or second choice to find an acceptable alternative that you can claim for your own, such as or

Avoid using hyphens and long acronyms in your domain name. You might be tempted to register an alternative domain name by tweaking your already-taken first choice with hyphens between key words, or by reducing your business name to an alphabet-soup acronym of unrelated letters. Don't do it. A fair share of your potential site visitors will trip over these grammatical stumbling blocks, leaving your web site lost in cyberspace. For example, works; does not.

Consider registering a domain name from the ever-growing list of new top-level domains (TLDs)(see Table 1-1).

Top-level domains: past, present, and future
May be registered by anyone; operated by VeriSign Global Registry. Available since 1995.
May be registered by anyone; operated by VeriSign Global Registry. Available since 1995.
May be registered by anyone; operated by Public Interest Registry. Available since 1995.
Reserved for U.S. educational institutions, such as universities or high schools. Operated by EDUCAUSE. Available since 1995.
Reserved for U.S. government use since 1995.
Reserved for U.S. military use since 1995.
Other sponsored top-level domains (sTLDs)
Sponsored by the Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques SC (SITA) and restricted to organizations within the air transport industry. Available since 2001.
Operated by NeuLevel, a joint venture between NeuStar, a Virginia-based telecommunications company, and Melbourne IT, an Australian domain name registration service. Must be used by businesses for commercial purposes. Available since 2001.
Sponsored by Dot Cooperation LLC and the National Cooperative Business Association, based in Washington, D.C. It is restricted to cooperative organizations. Available since 2001.
Operated by Afilias Limited, a consortium of 19 major domain name registrars including VeriSign,, and Tucows. Anyone may register a .info domain name. Available since 2001.
Registrants must be an intergovernmental organization. Operated by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Available since 1998.
Sponsored and administered by the Museum Domain Management Association, a nonprofit organization founded by the International Counsel of Museums and the J. Paul Getty Trust. Restricted to accredited museums worldwide. Available since 2001.
Offered to individuals for personal web sites and email addresses; operated by Global Name Registry. Available since 2001.
Marketed to professionals, such as accountants, doctors, lawyers, and engineers. Operated exclusively by RegistryPro. Available since 2002.
Proposed by DotAsia Organisation Ltd. in early 2004.
Approved by ICANN in September 2005, but it is not for feline aficionados. From the applicant's web site: "Why do we want .cat? Because the Catalan language and culture are a community that wants to be identified with its own domain on the internet." Who's next? Klingons?
Sponsored by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM); approved by ICANN in late 2004.
Proposed by the Spamhaus Project and others as an antidote to spam.
Sponsored by Mobi JV, a consortium of Microsoft, Nokia, and Vodafone and other heavy-weight multinational corporations. Geared toward web sites to be viewed on mobile devices, such as PDAs and cell phones. Approved by ICANN in July 2005.
Sponsored by the Switzerland-based Universal Postal Union; approved by ICANN in late 2004.
ICANN approved Telnic's application to run a TLO for managing corporate and individual contact information in July 2005.
Sponsored by the Travel Partnership Corporation; approved by ICANN in late 2004.

In August 2005, the Bush administration expressed its opposition to the creation of a new TLD specifically for the porn industry.
Originally for use by the eastern European Republic of Moldova; now marketed to physicians.
Administered by the .tv Corporation, a subsidiary of VeriSign. This TLD hit the free market in 2000 thanks to the South Pacific island nation of Tuvalu.
Commonly used for city, county, and state web sites in the United States, now sold for commercial use to web sites with domains in every other TLD.
Proposed to ICANN by EURid for use by businesses and individuals in the European Union.
With your domain name chosen, it's time to claim it as your own by registering it. To make sense of the often complex and overlapping roles of domain name registrars and web site hosting providers, consider this great analogy (related on numerous sites on the Web) that recasts the process as one that should be familiar to car owners everywhere.

Imagine for a minute that your web site is an automobilesay, a red Lexus RX 330and its domain name is a personalized license plate. To get a license plate for your Lexus, you register it with your local department of motor vehicles; to get a domain name for your web site, you must register it with an accredited domain name registrar. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) keeps a list of accredited registrars on its web site ( If the registrar you want to use is not on the list, they are likely a reseller of an approved registrar's services. Many web hosting companies (more on them later) offer domain name registration in this way.

Most Lexus owners, it's safe to assume, keep their cars in a garage, be it semi-detached in a suburban subdivision or underground in spot C219. After you have registered your domain name, you have to find a place to keep it. Web hosting companies typically provide domain name service (DNS) and disk space on a web server where web site designers "park" their web sites.

But where the rubber meets the road, so to speak, is where you as the web designer draw the line between registration and web hosting. Manyif not mostregistrars can host your site, and a growing number of hosting companies can register your domain name when you sign up for one of their hosting plans. But few Lexus owners would grant the clerks at the DMV the dual role of parking attendant for one of their most valuable assets (their car). For your domain name and web site, you would be wise to abide by the same separation-of-powers principle, choosing one company to handle your domain registration and a different one to do the hosting.

Why? Here are some gotchas to beware of and avoid when choosing a registrar and host for your domain name and web site:

. Hosting companies that offer to register your domain name have been known to list themselves as the owner of your domain name. Although this practice is less common than it once was, and by no means widespread, clearing up this administrative wrinkle in your DNS record can be a real headache if or when the time comes to relocate your web site to a new hosting provider. Bottom line: if you choose to register and host with the same company, read the fine print in your service agreement.

.Registrars that offer no-cost, or low-cost, registration in exchange for you also choosing them as your hosting provider may be doing so in hopes of collecting high fees when your domain comes up for renewal. Expect to pay $10 to $35 for a one-year registration. Bottom line: assume that you're getting what you pay for and make sure you know who's responsible for what.

Source:  Web site cookbook

Matching a Valid Email Address, Regular expression, PHP

Informed Apr 30, 2019 at 04:25 PM

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want to check if an email address is valid.

This is a popular question and everyone has a different answer, depending on their definition of valid. If valid means a mailbox belonging to a legitimate user at an existing hostname, the real answer is that you can't do it correctly, so don't even bother. However, sometimes a regular expression can help weed out some simple typos and obvious bogus attempts. That said, our favorite pattern that doesn't require maintenance is:

If the IMAP extension is enabled, you can also use imap_rfc822_parse_adrlist( ) :

$parsed = imap_rfc822_parse_adrlist($email_address, $default_host)
if ('INVALID_ADDRESS' == $parsed['mailbox']) {
// bad address
Ironically, because this function is so RFC-compliant, it may not give the results you expect.  

Source:  O'Reilly PHP Cookbook

Computer Security

Informed Apr 24, 2019 at 05:05 PM

Informer:  Wegen Fantu
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Security, techniques developed to safeguard information and information systems stored on computers. Potential threats include the destruction of computer hardware and software and the loss, modification, theft, unauthorized use, observation, or disclosure of computer data.
Computers and the information they contain are often considered confidential systems because their use is typically restricted to a limited number of users. This confidentiality can be compromised in a variety of ways. For example, computers and computer data can be harmed by people who spread computer viruses and worms. A computer virus is a set of computer program instructions that attaches itself to programs in other computers. The viruses are often parts of documents that are transmitted as attachments to e-mail messages. A worm is similar to a virus but is a self-contained program that transports itself from one computer to another through networks. Thousands of viruses and worms exist and can quickly contaminate millions of computers.
People who intentionally create viruses are computer experts often known as hackers. Hackers also violate confidentiality by observing computer monitor screens and by impersonating authorized users of computers in order to gain access to the users’ computers. They invade computer databases to steal the identities of other people by obtaining private, identifying information about them. Hackers also engage in software piracy and deface Web sites on the Internet. For example, they may insert malicious or unwanted messages on a Web site, or alter graphics on the site. They gain access to Web sites by impersonating Web site managers.
Malicious hackers are increasingly developing powerful software crime tools such as automatic computer virus generators, Internet eavesdropping sniffers, password guessers, vulnerability testers, and computer service saturators. For example, an Internet eavesdropping sniffer intercepts Internet messages sent to other computers. A password guesser tries millions of combinations of characters in an effort to guess a computer’s password. Vulnerability testers look for software weaknesses. These crime tools are also valuable security tools used for testing the security of computers and networks.
An increasingly common hacker tool that has gained widespread public attention is the computer service saturator, used in denial-of-service attacks, which can shut down a selected or targeted computer on the Internet by bombarding the computer with more requests than it can handle. This tool first searches for vulnerable computers on the Internet where it can install its own software program. Once installed, the compromised computers act like “zombies” sending usage requests to the target computer. If thousands of computers become infected with the software, then all would be sending usage requests to the target computer, overwhelming its ability to handle the requests for service.
A variety of simple techniques can help prevent computer crimes, such as protecting computer screens from observation, keeping printed information and computers in locked facilities, backing up copies of data files and software, and clearing desktops of sensitive information and materials. Increasingly, however, more sophisticated methods are needed to prevent computer crimes. These include using encryption techniques, establishing software usage permissions, mandating passwords, and installing firewalls and intrusion detection systems. In addition, controls within application systems and disaster recovery plans are also necessary.

Storing backup copies of software and data and having backup computer and communication capabilities are important basic safeguards because the data can then be restored if it was altered or destroyed by a computer crime or accident. Computer data should be backed up frequently and should be stored nearby in secure locations in case of damage at the primary site. Transporting sensitive data to storage locations should also be done securely.

Another technique to protect confidential information is encryption. Computer users can scramble information to prevent unauthorized users from accessing it. Authorized users can unscramble the information when needed by using a secret code called a key. Without the key the scrambled information would be impossible or very difficult to unscramble. A more complex form of encryption uses two keys, called the public key and the private key, and a system of double encryption. Each participant possesses a secret, private key and a public key that is known to potential recipients. Both keys are used to encrypt, and matching keys are used to decrypt the message. However, the advantage over the single-key method lies with the private keys, which are never shared and so cannot be intercepted. The public key verifies that the sender is the one who transmitted it. The keys are modified periodically, further hampering unauthorized unscrambling and making the encrypted information more difficult to decipher.

Another technique to help prevent abuse and misuse of computer data is to limit the use of computers and data files to approved persons. Security software can verify the identity of computer users and limit their privileges to use, view, and alter files. The software also securely records their actions to establish accountability. Military organizations give access rights to classified, confidential, secret, or top-secret information according to the corresponding security clearance level of the user. Other types of organizations also classify information and specify different degrees of protection.

Passwords are confidential sequences of characters that allow approved persons to make use of specified computers, software, or information. To be effective, passwords must be difficult to guess and should not be found in dictionaries. Effective passwords contain a variety of characters and symbols that are not part of the alphabet. To thwart imposters, computer systems usually limit the number of attempts and restrict the time it takes to enter the correct password.
A more secure method is to require possession and use of tamper-resistant plastic cards with microprocessor chips, known as “smart cards,” which contain a stored password that automatically changes after each use. When a user logs on, the computer reads the card's password, as well as another password entered by the user, and matches these two respectively to an identical card password generated by the computer and the user's password stored in the computer in encrypted form. Use of passwords and 'smart cards' is beginning to be reinforced by biometrics, identification methods that use unique personal characteristics, such as fingerprints, retinal patterns, facial characteristics, or voice recordings.

Computers connected to communication networks, such as the Internet, are particularly vulnerable to electronic attack because so many people have access to them. These computers can be protected by using firewall computers or software placed between the networked computers and the network. The firewall examines, filters, and reports on all information passing through the network to ensure its appropriateness. These functions help prevent saturation of input capabilities that otherwise might deny usage to legitimate users, and they ensure that information received from an outside source is expected and does not contain computer viruses.

Security software called intrusion detection systems may be used in computers to detect unusual and suspicious activity and, in some cases, stop a variety of harmful actions by authorized or unauthorized persons. Abuse and misuse of sensitive system and application programs and data such as password, inventory, financial, engineering, and personnel files can be detected by these systems.

The most serious threats to the integrity and authenticity of computer information come from those who have been entrusted with usage privileges and yet commit computer fraud. For example, authorized persons may secretly transfer money in financial networks, alter credit histories, sabotage information, or commit bill payment or payroll fraud. Modifying, removing, or misrepresenting existing data threatens the integrity and authenticity of computer information. For example, omitting sections of a bad credit history so that only the good credit history remains violates the integrity of the document. Entering false data to complete a fraudulent transfer or withdrawal of money violates the authenticity of banking information. These crimes can be prevented by using a variety of techniques. One such technique is checksumming. Checksumming sums the numerically coded word contents of a file before and after it is used. If the sums are different, then the file has been altered. Other techniques include authenticating the sources of messages, confirming transactions with those who initiate them, segregating and limiting job assignments to make it necessary for more than one person to be involved in committing a crime, and limiting the amount of money that can be transferred through a computer.

Organizations and businesses that rely on computers need to institute disaster recovery plans that are periodically tested and upgraded. This is because computers and storage components such as diskettes or hard disks are easy to damage. A computer's memory can be erased or flooding, fire, or other forms of destruction can damage the computer’s hardware. Computers, computer data, and components should be installed in safe and locked facilities.  

Source:  Microsoft student

Virus-like compute programs

Informed Apr 24, 2019 at 04:40 PM

Informer:  Wegen
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There are other harmful computer programs that can be part of a virus but are not considered viruses because they do not have the ability to replicate. These programs fall into three categories: Trojan horses, logic bombs, and deliberately harmful or malicious software programs that run within a Web browser, an application program such as Internet Explorer and Netscape that displays Web sites.
A Trojan horse is a program that pretends to be something else. A Trojan horse may appear to be something interesting and harmless, such as a game, but when it runs it may have harmful effects. The term comes from the classic Greek story of the Trojan horse found in Homer’s Iliad.
A logic bomb infects a computer’s memory, but unlike a virus, it does not replicate itself. A logic bomb delivers its instructions when it is triggered by a specific condition, such as when a particular date or time is reached or when a combination of letters is typed on a keyboard. A logic bomb has the ability to erase a hard drive or delete certain files.
Malicious software programs that run within a Web browser often appear in Java applets and ActiveX controls. Although these applets and controls improve the usefulness of Web sites, they also increase a vandal’s ability to interfere with unprotected systems. Because those controls and applets require that certain components be downloaded to a user’s personal computer (PC), activating an applet or control might actually download malicious code.  

Source:  Microsoft ® Encarta


Informed Apr 24, 2019 at 04:33 PM

Informer:  Wegen Fantu
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A. Preparation and Prevention
users can prepare for a viral infection by creating backups of legitimate original software and data files regularly so that the computer system can be restored if necessary. Viral infection can be prevented by obtaining software from legitimate sources or by using a quarantined computer—that is, a computer not connected to any network—to test new software. Plus, users should regularly install operating system (OS) patches, software updates that mend the sort of flaws, or holes, in the OS often exploited by viruses. Patches can be downloaded from the Web site of the operating system’s developer. However, the best prevention may be the installation of current and well-designed antiviral software. Such software can prevent a viral infection and thereby help stop its spread.

B. Virus Detection
Several types of antiviral software can be used to detect the presence of a virus. Scanning software can recognize the characteristics of a virus's computer code and look for these characteristics in the computer's files. Because new viruses must be analyzed as they appear, scanning software must be updated periodically to be effective. Other scanners search for common features of viral programs and are usually less reliable. Most antiviral software uses both on-demand and on-access scanners. On-demand scanners are launched only when the user activates them. On-access scanners, on the other hand, are constantly monitoring the computer for viruses but are always in the background and are not visible to the user. The on-access scanners are seen as the proactive part of an antivirus package and the on-demand scanners are seen as reactive. On-demand scanners usually detect a virus only after the infection has occurred and that is why they are considered reactive.
Antivirus software is usually sold as packages containing many different software programs that are independent of one another and perform different functions. When installed or packaged together, antiviral packages provide complete protection against viruses. Within most antiviral packages, several methods are used to detect viruses. Checksumming, for example, uses mathematical calculations to compare the state of executable programs before and after they are run. If the checksum has not changed, then the system is uninfected. Checksumming software can detect an infection only after it has occurred, however. As this technology is dated and some viruses can evade it, checksumming is rarely used today.
Most antivirus packages also use heuristics (problem-solving by trial and error) to detect new viruses. This technology observes a program’s behavior and evaluates how closely it resembles a virus. It relies on experience with previous viruses to predict the likelihood that a suspicious file is an as-yet unidentified or unclassified new virus.
Other types of antiviral software include monitoring software and integrity-shell software. Monitoring software is different from scanning software. It detects illegal or potentially damaging viral activities such as overwriting computer files or reformatting the computer's hard drive. Integrity-shell software establishes layers through which any command to run a program must pass. Checksumming is performed automatically within the integrity shell, and infected programs, if detected, are not allowed to run.

C. Containment and Recovery
Once a viral infection has been detected, it can be contained by immediately isolating computers on networks, halting the exchange of files, and using only write-protected disks. In order for a computer system to recover from a viral infection, the virus must first be eliminated. Some antivirus software attempts to remove detected viruses, but sometimes with unsatisfactory results. More reliable results are obtained by turning off the infected computer; restarting it from a write-protected floppy disk; deleting infected files and replacing them with legitimate files from backup disks; and erasing any viruses on the boot sector.


Source:  Microsoft ® Encarta

Interview Template, Informational Interview

Informed Apr 19, 2019 at 01:53 PM

Informer:  Wegen Fantu
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Image name: Encarta.png
Request an informational interview with a potential employer:

[City, ST ZIP Code]
April 19, 2019

[Recipient Name]
[Company Name]
[Street Address]
[City, ST ZIP Code]

Dear [Recipient Name]:

I am currently researching positions in the field of [industry or job field] and [Name of Person Referring You] suggested that you would be an excellent source of information. I would like to learn more about the types of jobs available in this field and the skills required for them.
As you will see from the enclosed resume, my education and work experience are in [job field]. I hope to transfer the skills that I’ve acquired over the years to a job in [industry or job field].
I hope that you can find 30 minutes to meet with me before the end of the month. I will contact you the week of [date] to set up an appointment. If you have questions, please contact me by phone at [phone number] or by e-mail at [e-mail address]. I appreciate your time in considering my request.


[Your Name]


Source:  Microsoft student Microsoft ® Encarta

Emergency numbers

Informed Apr 17, 2019 at 11:45 AM

Informer:  Wegen
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Ethio telecom: 994
ፖሊስ ዋና መስሪያ ቤት
Ababa police +251.11 1559122
Traffic Police +251.11 5528222
Emergency: 945.
Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo)
South Addis Abeba 0114-431478
North Addis Abeba 0112-595657
West Addis Abeba 0113-490585
East Addis Abeba 0116-465144
Central Addis Ababa 0111-262105
Red Cross society: 907
Ambulance - 907;
Fire Accident Emergency Number: 902
Tel: 011-663-0373903  

Source:  Different sources


Online E-books, Textbooks and related materials.